7.4 Timers

The setTimeout() and setInterval() methods allow authors to schedule timer-based callbacks.

[NoInterfaceObject, Exposed=Window,Worker]
interface WindowTimers {
  long setTimeout(Function handler, optional long timeout = 0, any... arguments);
  long setTimeout(DOMString handler, optional long timeout = 0, any... arguments);
  void clearTimeout(optional long handle = 0);
  long setInterval(Function handler, optional long timeout = 0, any... arguments);
  long setInterval(DOMString handler, optional long timeout = 0, any... arguments);
  void clearInterval(optional long handle = 0);
};
Window implements WindowTimers;
handle = window . setTimeout( handler [, timeout [, arguments... ] ] )

Schedules a timeout to run handler after timeout milliseconds. Any arguments are passed straight through to the handler.

handle = window . setTimeout( code [, timeout ] )

Schedules a timeout to compile and run code after timeout milliseconds.

window . clearTimeout( handle )

Cancels the timeout set with setTimeout() identified by handle.

handle = window . setInterval( handler [, timeout [, arguments... ] ] )

Schedules a timeout to run handler every timeout milliseconds. Any arguments are passed straight through to the handler.

handle = window . setInterval( code [, timeout ] )

Schedules a timeout to compile and run code every timeout milliseconds.

window . clearInterval( handle )

Cancels the timeout set with setInterval() identified by handle.

Timers can be nested; after five such nested timers, however, the interval is forced to be at least four milliseconds.

This API does not guarantee that timers will run exactly on schedule. Delays due to CPU load, other tasks, etc, are to be expected.

The WindowTimers interface adds to the Window interface and the WorkerGlobalScope interface (part of Web workers).

Each object that implements the WindowTimers interface has a list of active timers. Each entry in this lists is identified by a number, which must be unique within the list for the lifetime of the object that implements the WindowTimers interface.


The setTimeout() method must return the value returned by the timer initialization steps, passing them the method's arguments, the object on which the method for which the algorithm is running is implemented (a Window or WorkerGlobalScope object) as the method context, and the repeat flag set to false.

The setInterval() method must return the value returned by the timer initialization steps, passing them the method's arguments, the object on which the method for which the algorithm is running is implemented (a Window or WorkerGlobalScope object) as the method context, and the repeat flag set to true.

The clearTimeout() and clearInterval() methods must clear the entry identified as handle from the list of active timers of the WindowTimers object on which the method was invoked, if any, where handle is the argument passed to the method. (If handle does not identify an entry in the list of active timers of the WindowTimers object on which the method was invoked, the method does nothing.)


The timer initialization steps, which are invoked with some method arguments, a method context, a repeat flag which can be true or false, and optionally (and only if the repeat flag is true) a previous handle, are as follows:

  1. Let method context proxy be method context if that is a WorkerGlobalScope object, or else the WindowProxy that corresponds to method context.

  2. If previous handle was provided, let handle be previous handle; otherwise, let handle be a user-agent-defined integer that is greater than zero that will identify the timeout to be set by this call in the list of active timers.

  3. If previous handle was not provided, add an entry to the list of active timers for handle.

  4. Let task be a task that runs the following substeps:

    1. If the entry for handle in the list of active timers has been cleared, then abort this task's substeps.

    2. Run the appropriate set of steps from the following list:

      If the first method argument is a Function

      Call the Function. Use the third and subsequent method arguments (if any) as the arguments for invoking the Function. Use method context proxy as the thisArg for invoking the Function. [ECMA262]

      Otherwise
      1. Let script source be the first method argument.

      2. Let script language be JavaScript.

      3. Let settings object be method context's script settings object.

      4. Create a script using script source as the script source, the URL where script source can be found, scripting language as the scripting language, and settings object as the script settings object.

    3. If the repeat flag is true, then call timer initialization steps again, passing them the same method arguments, the same method context, with the repeat flag still set to true, and with the previous handle set to handler.

  5. Let timeout be the second method argument.

  6. If the currently running task is a task that was created by this algorithm, then let nesting level be the task's timer nesting level. Otherwise, let nesting level be zero.

  7. If nesting level is greater than 5, and timeout is less than 4, then increase timeout to 4.

  8. Increment nesting level by one.

  9. Let task's timer nesting level be nesting level.

  10. Return handle, and then continue running this algorithm asynchronously.

  11. If method context is a Window object, wait until the Document associated with method context has been fully active for a further timeout milliseconds (not necessarily consecutively).

    Otherwise, method context is a WorkerGlobalScope object; wait until timeout milliseconds have passed with the worker not suspended (not necessarily consecutively).

  12. Wait until any invocations of this algorithm that had the same method context, that started before this one, and whose timeout is equal to or less than this one's, have completed.

    Argument conversion as defined by Web IDL (for example, invoking toString() methods on objects passed as the first argument) happens in the algorithms defined in Web IDL, before this algorithm is invoked.

    So for example, the following rather silly code will result in the log containing "ONE TWO ":

    var log = '';
    function logger(s) { log += s + ' '; }
    
    setTimeout({ toString: function () {
      setTimeout("logger('ONE')", 100);
      return "logger('TWO')";
    } }, 100);
  13. Optionally, wait a further user-agent defined length of time.

    This is intended to allow user agents to pad timeouts as needed to optimise the power usage of the device. For example, some processors have a low-power mode where the granularity of timers is reduced; on such platforms, user agents can slow timers down to fit this schedule instead of requiring the processor to use the more accurate mode with its associated higher power usage.

  14. Queue the task task.

    Once the task has been processed, if the repeat flag is false, it is safe to remove the entry for handle from the list of active timers (there is no way for the entry's existence to be detected past this point, so it does not technically matter one way or the other).

The task source for these tasks is the timer task source.

To run tasks of several milliseconds back to back without any delay, while still yielding back to the browser to avoid starving the user interface (and to avoid the browser killing the script for hogging the CPU), simply queue the next timer before performing work:

function doExpensiveWork() {
  var done = false;
  // ...
  // this part of the function takes up to five milliseconds
  // set done to true if we're done
  // ...
  return done;
}

function rescheduleWork() {
  var handle = setTimeout(rescheduleWork, 0); // preschedule next iteration
  if (doExpensiveWork())
    clearTimeout(handle); // clear the timeout if we don't need it
}

function scheduleWork() {
  setTimeout(rescheduleWork, 0);
}

scheduleWork(); // queues a task to do lots of work

7.5 User prompts

7.5.1 Simple dialogs

window . alert(message)

Displays a modal alert with the given message, and waits for the user to dismiss it.

A call to the navigator.yieldForStorageUpdates() method is implied when this method is invoked.

result = window . confirm(message)

Displays a modal OK/Cancel prompt with the given message, waits for the user to dismiss it, and returns true if the user clicks OK and false if the user clicks Cancel.

A call to the navigator.yieldForStorageUpdates() method is implied when this method is invoked.

result = window . prompt(message [, default] )

Displays a modal text field prompt with the given message, waits for the user to dismiss it, and returns the value that the user entered. If the user cancels the prompt, then returns null instead. If the second argument is present, then the given value is used as a default.

A call to the navigator.yieldForStorageUpdates() method is implied when this method is invoked.

The alert(message) method, when invoked, must run the following steps:

  1. If the event loop's termination nesting level is non-zero, optionally abort these steps.

  2. Release the storage mutex.

  3. Optionally, abort these steps. (For example, the user agent might give the user the option to ignore all alerts, and would thus abort at this step whenever the method was invoked.)

  4. Show the given message to the user.

  5. Optionally, pause while waiting for the user to acknowledge the message.

The confirm(message) method, when invoked, must run the following steps:

  1. If the event loop's termination nesting level is non-zero, optionally abort these steps, returning false.

  2. Release the storage mutex.

  3. Optionally, return false and abort these steps. (For example, the user agent might give the user the option to ignore all prompts, and would thus abort at this step whenever the method was invoked.)

  4. Show the given message to the user, and ask the user to respond with a positive or negative response.

  5. Pause until the user responds either positively or negatively.

  6. If the user responded positively, return true; otherwise, the user responded negatively: return false.

The prompt(message, default) method, when invoked, must run the following steps:

  1. If the event loop's termination nesting level is non-zero, optionally abort these steps, returning null.

  2. Release the storage mutex.

  3. Optionally, return null and abort these steps. (For example, the user agent might give the user the option to ignore all prompts, and would thus abort at this step whenever the method was invoked.)

  4. Show the given message to the user, and ask the user to either respond with a string value or abort. The response must be defaulted to the value given by default.

  5. Pause while waiting for the user's response.

  6. If the user aborts, then return null; otherwise, return the string that the user responded with.

7.5.2 Printing

window . print()

Prompts the user to print the page.

A call to the navigator.yieldForStorageUpdates() method is implied when this method is invoked.

When the print() method is invoked, if the Document is ready for post-load tasks, then the user agent must synchronously run the printing steps. Otherwise, the user agent must only set the print when loaded flag on the Document.

User agents should also run the printing steps whenever the user asks for the opportunity to obtain a physical form (e.g. printed copy), or the representation of a physical form (e.g. PDF copy), of a document.

The printing steps are as follows:

  1. The user agent may display a message to the user or abort these steps (or both).

    For instance, a kiosk browser could silently ignore any invocations of the print() method.

    For instance, a browser on a mobile device could detect that there are no printers in the vicinity and display a message saying so before continuing to offer a "save to PDF" option.

  2. The user agent must fire a simple event named beforeprint at the Window object of the Document that is being printed, as well as any nested browsing contexts in it.

    The beforeprint event can be used to annotate the printed copy, for instance adding the time at which the document was printed.

  3. The user agent must release the storage mutex.

  4. The user agent should offer the user the opportunity to obtain a physical form (or the representation of a physical form) of the document. The user agent may wait for the user to either accept or decline before returning; if so, the user agent must pause while the method is waiting. Even if the user agent doesn't wait at this point, the user agent must use the state of the relevant documents as they are at this point in the algorithm if and when it eventually creates the alternate form.

  5. The user agent must fire a simple event named afterprint at the Window object of the Document that is being printed, as well as any nested browsing contexts in it.

    The afterprint event can be used to revert annotations added in the earlier event, as well as showing post-printing UI. For instance, if a page is walking the user through the steps of applying for a home loan, the script could automatically advance to the next step after having printed a form or other.

7.5.3 Dialogs implemented using separate documents

result = window . showModalDialog(url [, argument] )

Prompts the user with the given page, waits for that page to close, and returns the return value.

A call to the navigator.yieldForStorageUpdates() method is implied when this method is invoked.

The showModalDialog(url, argument) method, when invoked, must cause the user agent to run the following steps:

  1. Resolve url relative to the API base URL specified by the entry settings object.

    If this fails, then throw a SyntaxError exception and abort these steps.

  2. If the event loop's termination nesting level is non-zero, optionally abort these steps, returning the empty string.

  3. Release the storage mutex.

  4. If the user agent is configured such that this invocation of showModalDialog() is somehow disabled, then return the empty string and abort these steps.

    User agents are expected to disable this method in certain cases to avoid user annoyance (e.g. as part of their popup blocker feature). For instance, a user agent could require that a site be white-listed before enabling this method, or the user agent could be configured to only allow one modal dialog at a time.

  5. If the active sandboxing flag set of the active document of the responsible browsing context specified by the incumbent settings object has its sandboxed auxiliary navigation browsing context flag set, then return the empty string and abort these steps.

  6. Let incumbent origin be the effective script origin specified by the incumbent settings object at the time the showModalDialog() method was called.

  7. Let the list of background browsing contexts be a list of all the browsing contexts that:

    ...as well as any browsing contexts that are nested inside any of the browsing contexts matching those conditions.

  8. Disable the user interface for all the browsing contexts in the list of background browsing contexts. This should prevent the user from navigating those browsing contexts, causing events to be sent to those browsing context, or editing any content in those browsing contexts. However, it does not prevent those browsing contexts from receiving events from sources other than the user, from running scripts, from running animations, and so forth.

  9. Create a new auxiliary browsing context, with the opener browsing context being the browsing context of the Window object on which the showModalDialog() method was called. The new auxiliary browsing context has no name.

    This browsing context's Documents' Window objects all implement the WindowModal interface.

  10. Set all the flags in the new browsing context's popup sandboxing flag set that are set in the active sandboxing flag set of the active document of the responsible browsing context specified by the incumbent settings object. The responsible browsing context specified by the incumbent settings object must be set as the new browsing context's one permitted sandboxed navigator.

  11. Let the dialog arguments of the new browsing context be set to the value of argument, or the undefined value if the argument was omitted.

  12. Let the dialog arguments' origin be incumbent origin.

  13. Let the return value of the new browsing context be the undefined value.

  14. Let the return value origin be incumbent origin.

  15. Navigate the new browsing context to the absolute URL that resulted from resolving url earlier, with replacement enabled, and with the responsible browsing context specified by the incumbent settings object as the source browsing context.

  16. Spin the event loop until the new browsing context is closed. The user agent must allow the user to indicate that the browsing context is to be closed.

  17. Reenable the user interface for all the browsing contexts in the list of background browsing contexts.

  18. If the auxiliary browsing context's return value origin at the time the browsing context was closed was the same as incumbent origin, then let return value be the auxiliary browsing context's return value as it stood when the browsing context was closed.

    Otherwise, let return value be undefined.

  19. Return return value.

The Window objects of Documents hosted by browsing contexts created by the above algorithm must also implement the WindowModal interface.

When this happens, the members of the WindowModal interface, in JavaScript environments, appear to actually be part of the Window interface (e.g. they are on the same prototype chain as the window.alert() method).

[NoInterfaceObject]
interface WindowModal {
  readonly attribute any dialogArguments;
           attribute any returnValue;
};
window . dialogArguments

Returns the argument argument that was passed to the showModalDialog() method.

window . returnValue [ = value ]

Returns the current return value for the window.

Can be set, to change the value that will be returned by the showModalDialog() method.

Such browsing contexts have associated dialog arguments, which are stored along with the dialog arguments' origin. These values are set by the showModalDialog() method in the algorithm above, when the browsing context is created, based on the arguments provided to the method.

The dialogArguments IDL attribute, on getting, must check whether its browsing context's active document's effective script origin is the same as the dialog arguments' origin. If it is, then the browsing context's dialog arguments must be returned unchanged. Otherwise, the IDL attribute must return undefined.

These browsing contexts also have an associated return value and return value origin. As with the previous two values, these values are set by the showModalDialog() method in the algorithm above, when the browsing context is created.

The returnValue IDL attribute, on getting, must check whether its browsing context's active document's effective script origin is the same as the current return value origin. If it is, then the browsing context's return value must be returned unchanged. Otherwise, the IDL attribute must return undefined. On setting, the attribute must set the return value to the given new value, and the return value origin to the browsing context's active document's effective script origin.

The window.close() method can be used to close the browsing context.

7.6 System state and capabilities

7.6.1 The Navigator object

The navigator attribute of the Window interface must return an instance of the Navigator interface, which represents the identity and state of the user agent (the client), and allows Web pages to register themselves as potential protocol and content handlers:

interface Navigator {
  // objects implementing this interface also implement the interfaces given below
};
Navigator implements NavigatorID;
Navigator implements NavigatorLanguage;
Navigator implements NavigatorOnLine;
Navigator implements NavigatorContentUtils;
Navigator implements NavigatorStorageUtils;
Navigator implements NavigatorPlugins;

These interfaces are defined separately so that other specifications can re-use parts of the Navigator interface.

7.6.1.1 Client identification
[NoInterfaceObject, Exposed=Window,Worker]
interface NavigatorID {
  readonly attribute DOMString appCodeName; // constant "Mozilla"
  readonly attribute DOMString appName;
  readonly attribute DOMString appVersion;
  readonly attribute DOMString platform;
  readonly attribute DOMString product; // constant "Gecko"
  boolean taintEnabled(); // constant false
  readonly attribute DOMString userAgent;
};

In certain cases, despite the best efforts of the entire industry, Web browsers have bugs and limitations that Web authors are forced to work around.

This section defines a collection of attributes that can be used to determine, from script, the kind of user agent in use, in order to work around these issues.

Client detection should always be limited to detecting known current versions; future versions and unknown versions should always be assumed to be fully compliant.

window . navigator . appCodeName

Returns the string "Mozilla".

window . navigator . appName

Returns the name of the browser.

window . navigator . appVersion

Returns the version of the browser.

window . navigator . platform

Returns the name of the platform.

window . navigator . product

Returns the string "Gecko".

window . navigator . taintEnabled()

Returns false.

window . navigator . userAgent

Returns the complete User-Agent header.

appCodeName

Must return the string "Mozilla".

appName

Must return either the string "Netscape" or the full name of the browser, e.g. "Mellblom Browsernator".

appVersion

Must return either the string "4.0" or a string representing the version of the browser in detail, e.g. "1.0 (VMS; en-US) Mellblomenator/9000".

platform

Must return either the empty string or a string representing the platform on which the browser is executing, e.g. "MacIntel", "Win32", "FreeBSD i386", "WebTV OS".

product

Must return the string "Gecko".

taintEnabled()

Must return false.

userAgent

Must return the string used for the value of the "User-Agent" header in HTTP requests, or the empty string if no such header is ever sent.

Any information in this API that varies from user to user can be used to profile the user. In fact, if enough such information is available, a user can actually be uniquely identified. For this reason, user agent implementors are strongly urged to include as little information in this API as possible. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

7.6.1.2 Language preferences
[NoInterfaceObject, Exposed=Window,Worker]
interface NavigatorLanguage {
  readonly attribute DOMString? language;
  readonly attribute DOMString[] languages;
};
window . navigator . language

Returns a language tag representing the user's preferred language.

window . navigator . languages

Returns an array of language tags representing the user's preferred languages, with the most preferred language first.

The most preferred language is the one returned by navigator.language.

A languagechange event is fired at the Window or WorkerGlobalScope object when the user agent's understanding of what the user's preferred languages are changes.

language

Must return a valid BCP 47 language tag representing either a plausible language or the user's most preferred language. [BCP47]

languages

Must return a read only array of valid BCP 47 language tags representing either one or more plausible languages, or the user's preferred languages, ordered by preference with the most preferred language first. The same object must be returned until the user agent needs to return different values, or values in a different order. [BCP47]

Whenever the user agent needs to make the navigator.languages attribute of a Window or WorkerGlobalScope object return a new set of language tags, the user agent must queue a task to fire a simple event named languagechange at the Window or WorkerGlobalScope object and wait until that task begins to be executed before actually returning a new value.

The task source for this task is the DOM manipulation task source.

To determine a plausible language, the user agent should bear in mind the following:

To avoid introducing any more fingerprinting vectors, user agents should use the same list for the APIs defined in this function as for the HTTP Accept-Language header. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

7.6.1.3 Custom scheme and content handlers
[NoInterfaceObject]
interface NavigatorContentUtils {
  // content handler registration
  void registerProtocolHandler(DOMString scheme, DOMString url, DOMString title);
  void registerContentHandler(DOMString mimeType, DOMString url, DOMString title);
  DOMString isProtocolHandlerRegistered(DOMString scheme, DOMString url);
  DOMString isContentHandlerRegistered(DOMString mimeType, DOMString url);
  void unregisterProtocolHandler(DOMString scheme, DOMString url);
  void unregisterContentHandler(DOMString mimeType, DOMString url);
};

The registerProtocolHandler() method allows Web sites to register themselves as possible handlers for particular schemes. For example, an online telephone messaging service could register itself as a handler of the sms: scheme, so that if the user clicks on such a link, he is given the opportunity to use that Web site. Analogously, the registerContentHandler() method allows Web sites to register themselves as possible handlers for content in a particular MIME type. For example, the same online telephone messaging service could register itself as a handler for text/vcard files, so that if the user has no native application capable of handling vCards, his Web browser can instead suggest he use that site to view contact information stored on vCards that he opens. [RFC5724] [RFC6350]

window . navigator . registerProtocolHandler(scheme, url, title)
window . navigator . registerContentHandler(mimeType, url, title)

Registers a handler for the given scheme or content type, at the given URL, with the given title.

The string "%s" in the URL is used as a placeholder for where to put the URL of the content to be handled.

Throws a SecurityError exception if the user agent blocks the registration (this might happen if trying to register as a handler for "http", for instance).

Throws a SyntaxError exception if the "%s" string is missing in the URL.

User agents may, within the constraints described in this section, do whatever they like when the methods are called. A UA could, for instance, prompt the user and offer the user the opportunity to add the site to a shortlist of handlers, or make the handlers his default, or cancel the request. UAs could provide such a UI through modal UI or through a non-modal transient notification interface. UAs could also simply silently collect the information, providing it only when relevant to the user.

User agents should keep track of which sites have registered handlers (even if the user has declined such registrations) so that the user is not repeatedly prompted with the same request.

The arguments to the methods have the following meanings and corresponding implementation requirements. The requirements that involve throwing exceptions must be processed in the order given below, stopping at the first exception thrown. (So the exceptions for the first argument take precedence over the exceptions for the second argument.)

scheme (registerProtocolHandler() only)

A scheme, such as mailto or web+auth. The scheme must be compared in an ASCII case-insensitive manner by user agents for the purposes of comparing with the scheme part of URLs that they consider against the list of registered handlers.

The scheme value, if it contains a colon (as in "mailto:"), will never match anything, since schemes don't contain colons.

If the registerProtocolHandler() method is invoked with a scheme that is neither a whitelisted scheme nor a scheme whose value starts with the substring "web+" and otherwise contains only lowercase ASCII letters, and whose length is at least five characters (including the "web+" prefix), the user agent must throw a SecurityError exception.

The following schemes are the whitelisted schemes:

  • bitcoin
  • geo
  • im
  • irc
  • ircs
  • magnet
  • mailto
  • mms
  • news
  • nntp
  • sip
  • sms
  • smsto
  • ssh
  • tel
  • urn
  • webcal
  • wtai
  • xmpp

This list can be changed. If there are schemes that should be added, please send feedback.

This list excludes any schemes that could reasonably be expected to be supported inline, e.g. in an iframe, such as http or (more theoretically) gopher. If those were supported, they could potentially be used in man-in-the-middle attacks, by replacing pages that have frames with such content with content under the control of the protocol handler. If the user agent has native support for the schemes, this could further be used for cookie-theft attacks.

mimeType (registerContentHandler() only)

A MIME type, such as model/vnd.flatland.3dml or application/vnd.google-earth.kml+xml. The MIME type must be compared in an ASCII case-insensitive manner by user agents for the purposes of comparing with MIME types of documents that they consider against the list of registered handlers.

User agents must compare the given values only to the MIME type/subtype parts of content types, not to the complete type including parameters. Thus, if mimeType values passed to this method include characters such as commas or whitespace, or include MIME parameters, then the handler being registered will never be used.

The type is compared to the MIME type used by the user agent after the sniffing algorithms have been applied.

If the registerContentHandler() method is invoked with a MIME type that is in the type blacklist or that the user agent has deemed a privileged type, the user agent must throw a SecurityError exception.

The following MIME types are in the type blacklist:

This list can be changed. If there are MIME types that should be added, please send feedback.

url

A string used to build the URL of the page that will handle the requests.

User agents must throw a SyntaxError exception if the url argument passed to one of these methods does not contain the exact literal string "%s".

User agents must throw a SyntaxError exception if resolving the url argument relative to the API base URL specified by the entry settings object is not successful.

The resulting absolute URL would by definition not be a valid URL as it would include the string "%s" which is not a valid component in a URL.

User agents must throw a SecurityError exception if the resulting absolute URL has an origin that differs from the origin specified by the entry settings object.

This is forcibly the case if the %s placeholder is in the scheme, host, or port parts of the URL.

The resulting absolute URL is the proto-URL. It identifies the handler for the purposes of the methods described below.

When the user agent uses this handler, it must replace the first occurrence of the exact literal string "%s" in the url argument with an escaped version of the absolute URL of the content in question (as defined below), then resolve the resulting URL, relative to the API base URL specified by the entry settings object at the time the registerContentHandler() or registerProtocolHandler() methods were invoked, and then navigate an appropriate browsing context to the resulting URL using the GET method (or equivalent for non-HTTP URLs).

To get the escaped version of the absolute URL of the content in question, the user agent must replace every character in that absolute URL that is not a character in the URL default encode set with the result of UTF-8 percent encoding that character.

If the user had visited a site at http://example.com/ that made the following call:

navigator.registerContentHandler('application/x-soup', 'soup?url=%s', 'SoupWeb™')

...and then, much later, while visiting http://www.example.net/, clicked on a link such as:

<a href="chickenkïwi.soup">Download our Chicken Kïwi soup!</a>

...then, assuming this chickenkïwi.soup file was served with the MIME type application/x-soup, the UA might navigate to the following URL:

http://example.com/soup?url=http://www.example.net/chickenk%C3%AFwi.soup

This site could then fetch the chickenkïwi.soup file and do whatever it is that it does with soup (synthesize it and ship it to the user, or whatever).

title

A descriptive title of the handler, which the UA might use to remind the user what the site in question is.

This section does not define how the pages registered by these methods are used, beyond the requirements on how to process the url value (see above). To some extent, the processing model for navigating across documents defines some cases where these methods are relevant, but in general UAs may use this information wherever they would otherwise consider handing content to native plugins or helper applications.

UAs must not use registered content handlers to handle content that was returned as part of a non-GET transaction (or rather, as part of any non-idempotent transaction), as the remote site would not be able to fetch the same data.


In addition to the registration methods, there are also methods for determining if particular handlers have been registered, and for unregistering handlers.

state = window . navigator . isProtocolHandlerRegistered(scheme, url)
state = window . navigator . isContentHandlerRegistered(mimeType, url)

Returns one of the following strings describing the state of the handler given by the arguments:

new
Indicates that no attempt has been made to register the given handler (or that the handler has been unregistered). It would be appropriate to promote the availability of the handler or to just automatically register the handler.
registered
Indicates that the given handler has been registered or that the site is blocked from registering the handler. Trying to register the handler again would have no effect.
declined
Indicates that the given handler has been offered but was rejected. Trying to register the handler again may prompt the user again.
state = window . navigator . unregisterProtocolHandler(scheme, url)
state = window . navigator . unregisterContentHandler(mimeType, url)

Unregisters the handler given by the arguments.

The isProtocolHandlerRegistered() method must return the handler state string that most closely describes the current state of the handler described by the two arguments to the method, where the first argument gives the scheme and the second gives the string used to build the URL of the page that will handle the requests. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The first argument must be compared to the schemes for which custom protocol handlers are registered in an ASCII case-insensitive manner to find the relevant handlers.

The second argument must be preprocessed as described below, and if that is successful, must then be matched against the proto-URLs of the relevant handlers to find the described handler.


The isContentHandlerRegistered() method must return the handler state string that most closely describes the current state of the handler described by the two arguments to the method, where the first argument gives the MIME type and the second gives the string used to build the URL of the page that will handle the requests. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The first argument must be compared to the MIME types for which custom content handlers are registered in an ASCII case-insensitive manner to find the relevant handlers.

The second argument must be preprocessed as described below, and if that is successful, must then be matched against the proto-URLs of the relevant handlers to find the described handler.


The handler state strings are the following strings. Each string describes several situations, as given by the following list.

new
The described handler has never been registered for the given scheme or type.
The described handler was once registered for the given scheme or type, but the site has since unregistered it. If the handler were to be reregistered, the user would be notified accordingly.
The described handler was once registered for the given scheme or type, but the site has since unregistered it, but the user has indicated that the site is to be blocked from registering the type again, so the user agent would ignore further registration attempts.
registered
An attempt was made to register the described handler for the given scheme or type, but the user has not yet been notified, and the user agent would ignore further registration attempts. (Maybe the user agent batches registration requests to display them when the user requests to be notified about them, and the user has not yet requested that the user agent notify it of the previous registration attempt.)
The described handler is registered for the given scheme or type (maybe, or maybe not, as the default handler).
The described handler is permanently blocked from being (re)registered. (Maybe the user marked the registration attempt as spam, or blocked the site for other reasons.)
declined
An attempt was made to register the described handler for the given scheme or type, but the user has not yet been notified; however, the user might be notified if another registration attempt were to be made. (Maybe the last registration attempt was made while the page was in the background and the user closed the page without looking at it, and the user agent requires confirmation for this registration attempt.)
An attempt was made to register the described handler for the given scheme or type, but the user has not yet responded.
An attempt was made to register the described handler for the given scheme or type, but the user declined the offer. The user has not indicated that the handler is to be permanently blocked, however, so another attempt to register the described handler might result in the user being prompted again.
The described handler was once registered for the given scheme or type, but the user has since removed it. The user has not indicated that the handler is to be permanently blocked, however, so another attempt to register the described handler might result in the user being prompted again.

The unregisterProtocolHandler() method must unregister the handler described by the two arguments to the method, where the first argument gives the scheme and the second gives the string used to build the URL of the page that will handle the requests.

The first argument must be compared to the schemes for which custom protocol handlers are registered in an ASCII case-insensitive manner to find the relevant handlers.

The second argument must be preprocessed as described below, and if that is successful, must then be matched against the proto-URLs of the relevant handlers to find the described handler.


The unregisterContentHandler() method must unregister the handler described by the two arguments to the method, where the first argument gives the MIME type and the second gives the string used to build the URL of the page that will handle the requests.

The first argument must be compared to the MIME types for which custom content handlers are registered in an ASCII case-insensitive manner to find the relevant handlers.

The second argument must be preprocessed as described below, and if that is successful, must then be matched against the proto-URLs of the relevant handlers to find the described handler.


The second argument of the four methods described above must be preprocessed as follows:

  1. If the string does not contain the substring "%s", abort these steps. There's no matching handler.

  2. Resolve the string relative to the API base URL specified by the entry settings object.

  3. If this fails, then throw a SyntaxError exception, aborting the method.

  4. If the resulting absolute URL's origin is not the same origin as the origin specified by the entry settings object, throw a SecurityError exception, aborting the method.

  5. Return the resulting absolute URL as the result of preprocessing the argument.

7.6.1.3.1 Security and privacy

These mechanisms can introduce a number of concerns, in particular privacy concerns.

Hijacking all Web usage. User agents should not allow schemes that are key to its normal operation, such as http or https, to be rerouted through third-party sites. This would allow a user's activities to be trivially tracked, and would allow user information, even in secure connections, to be collected.

Hijacking defaults. User agents are strongly urged to not automatically change any defaults, as this could lead the user to send data to remote hosts that the user is not expecting. New handlers registering themselves should never automatically cause those sites to be used.

Registration spamming. User agents should consider the possibility that a site will attempt to register a large number of handlers, possibly from multiple domains (e.g. by redirecting through a series of pages each on a different domain, and each registering a handler for video/mpeg — analogous practices abusing other Web browser features have been used by pornography Web sites for many years). User agents should gracefully handle such hostile attempts, protecting the user.

Misleading titles. User agents should not rely wholly on the title argument to the methods when presenting the registered handlers to the user, since sites could easily lie. For example, a site hostile.example.net could claim that it was registering the "Cuddly Bear Happy Content Handler". User agents should therefore use the handler's domain in any UI along with any title.

Hostile handler metadata. User agents should protect against typical attacks against strings embedded in their interface, for example ensuring that markup or escape characters in such strings are not executed, that null bytes are properly handled, that over-long strings do not cause crashes or buffer overruns, and so forth.

Leaking Intranet URLs. The mechanism described in this section can result in secret Intranet URLs being leaked, in the following manner:

  1. The user registers a third-party content handler as the default handler for a content type.
  2. The user then browses his corporate Intranet site and accesses a document that uses that content type.
  3. The user agent contacts the third party and hands the third party the URL to the Intranet content.

No actual confidential file data is leaked in this manner, but the URLs themselves could contain confidential information. For example, the URL could be http://www.corp.example.com/upcoming-aquisitions/the-sample-company.egf, which might tell the third party that Example Corporation is intending to merge with The Sample Company. Implementors might wish to consider allowing administrators to disable this feature for certain subdomains, content types, or schemes.

Leaking secure URLs. User agents should not send HTTPS URLs to third-party sites registered as content handlers without the user's informed consent, for the same reason that user agents sometimes avoid sending Referer (sic) HTTP headers from secure sites to third-party sites.

Leaking credentials. User agents must never send username or password information in the URLs that are escaped and included sent to the handler sites. User agents may even avoid attempting to pass to Web-based handlers the URLs of resources that are known to require authentication to access, as such sites would be unable to access the resources in question without prompting the user for credentials themselves (a practice that would require the user to know whether to trust the third-party handler, a decision many users are unable to make or even understand).

Interface interference. User agents should be prepared to handle intentionally long arguments to the methods. For example, if the user interface exposed consists of an "accept" button and a "deny" button, with the "accept" binding containing the name of the handler, it's important that a long name not cause the "deny" button to be pushed off the screen.

Fingerprinting users. Since a site can detect if it has attempted to register a particular handler or not, whether or not the user responds, the mechanism can be used to store data. User agents are therefore strongly urged to treat registrations in the same manner as cookies: clearing cookies for a site should also clear all registrations for that site, and disabling cookies for a site should also disable registrations.

7.6.1.3.2 Sample user interface

This section is non-normative.

A simple implementation of this feature for a desktop Web browser might work as follows.

The registerContentHandler() method could display a modal dialog box:

The modal dialog box could have the title 'Content Handler Registration', and could say 'This Web page: Kittens at work http://kittens.example.org/ ...would like permission to handle files of type: application/x-meowmeow using the following Web-based application: Kittens-at-work displayer http://kittens.example.org/?show=%s Do you trust the administrators of the "kittens.example.org" domain?' with two buttons, 'Trust kittens.example.org' and 'Cancel'.

In this dialog box, "Kittens at work" is the title of the page that invoked the method, "http://kittens.example.org/" is the URL of that page, "application/x-meowmeow" is the string that was passed to the registerContentHandler() method as its first argument (mimeType), "http://kittens.example.org/?show=%s" was the second argument (url), and "Kittens-at-work displayer" was the third argument (title).

If the user clicks the Cancel button, then nothing further happens. If the user clicks the "Trust" button, then the handler is remembered.

When the user then attempts to fetch a URL that uses the "application/x-meowmeow" MIME type, then it might display a dialog as follows:

The dialog box could have the title 'Unknown File Type' and could say 'You have attempted to access:' followed by a URL, followed by a prompt such as 'How would you like FerretBrowser to handle this resource?' with three radio buttons, one saying 'Contact the FerretBrowser plugin registry to see if there is an official way to handle this resource.', one saying 'Pass this URL to a local application' with an application selector, and one saying 'Pass this URL to the "Kittens-at-work displayer" application at "kittens.example.org"', with a checkbox labeled 'Always do this for resources using the "application/x-meowmeow" type in future.', and with two buttons, 'Ok' and 'Cancel'.

In this dialog, the third option is the one that was primed by the site registering itself earlier.

If the user does select that option, then the browser, in accordance with the requirements described in the previous two sections, will redirect the user to "http://kittens.example.org/?show=data%3Aapplication/x-meowmeow;base64,S2l0dGVucyBhcmUgdGhlIGN1dGVzdCE%253D".

The registerProtocolHandler() method would work equivalently, but for schemes instead of unknown content types.

7.6.1.4 Manually releasing the storage mutex
[NoInterfaceObject]
interface NavigatorStorageUtils {
  readonly attribute boolean cookieEnabled;
  void yieldForStorageUpdates();
};
window . navigator . cookieEnabled

Returns false if setting a cookie will be ignored, and true otherwise.

window . navigator . yieldForStorageUpdates()

If a script uses the document.cookie API, or the localStorage API, the browser will block other scripts from accessing cookies or storage until the first script finishes.

Calling the navigator.yieldForStorageUpdates() method tells the user agent to unblock any other scripts that may be blocked, even though the script hasn't returned.

Values of cookies and items in the Storage objects of localStorage attributes can change after calling this method, whence its name.

The cookieEnabled attribute must return true if the user agent attempts to handle cookies according to the cookie specification, and false if it ignores cookie change requests. [COOKIES]

The yieldForStorageUpdates() method, when invoked, must, if the storage mutex is owned by the event loop of the task that resulted in the method being called, release the storage mutex so that it is once again free. Otherwise, it must do nothing.

7.6.1.5 Plugins
[NoInterfaceObject]
interface NavigatorPlugins {
  readonly attribute PluginArray plugins;
  readonly attribute MimeTypeArray mimeTypes;
  readonly attribute boolean javaEnabled;
};

interface PluginArray {
  void refresh(optional boolean reload = false);
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  getter Plugin? item(unsigned long index);
  getter Plugin? namedItem(DOMString name);
};

interface MimeTypeArray {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  getter MimeType? item(unsigned long index);
  getter MimeType? namedItem(DOMString name);
};

interface Plugin {
  readonly attribute DOMString name;
  readonly attribute DOMString description;
  readonly attribute DOMString filename;
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  getter MimeType? item(unsigned long index);
  getter MimeType? namedItem(DOMString name);
};

interface MimeType {
  readonly attribute DOMString type;
  readonly attribute DOMString description;
  readonly attribute DOMString suffixes; // comma-separated
  readonly attribute Plugin enabledPlugin;
};
window . navigator . plugins . refresh( [ refresh ] )

Updates the lists of supported plugins and MIME types for this page, and reloads the page if the lists have changed.

window . navigator . plugins . length

Returns the number of plugins, represented by Plugin objects, that the user agent reports.

plugin = window . navigator . plugins . item(index)
window . navigator . plugins[index]

Returns the specified Plugin object.

plugin = window . navigator . plugins . item(name)
window . navigator . plugins[name]

Returns the Plugin object for the plugin with the given name.

window . navigator . mimeTypes . length

Returns the number of MIME types, represented by MimeType objects, supported by the plugins that the user agent reports.

mimeType = window . navigator . mimeTypes . item(index)
window . navigator . mimeTypes[index]

Returns the specified MimeType object.

mimeType = window . navigator . mimeTypes . item(name)
window . navigator . mimeTypes[name]

Returns the MimeType object for the given MIME type.

plugin . name

Returns the plugin's name.

plugin . description

Returns the plugin's description.

plugin . filename

Returns the plugin library's filename, if applicable on the current platform.

plugin . length

Returns the number of MIME types, represented by MimeType objects, supported by the plugin.

mimeType = plugin . item(index)
plugin[index]

Returns the specified MimeType object.

mimeType = plugin . item(name)
plugin[name]

Returns the MimeType object for the given MIME type.

mimeType . type

Returns the MIME type.

mimeType . description

Returns the MIME type's description.

mimeType . suffixes

Returns the MIME type's typical file extensions, in a comma-separated list.

mimeType . enabledPlugin

Returns the Plugin object that implements this MIME type.

window . navigator . javaEnabled

Returns true if there's a plugin that supports the MIME type "application/x-java-vm".

The navigator.plugins attribute must return a PluginArray object. The same object must be returned each time.

The navigator.mimeTypes attribute must return a MimeTypeArray object. The same object must be returned each time.


A PluginArray object represents none, some, or all of the plugins supported by the user agent, each of which is represented by a Plugin object. Each of these Plugin objects may be hidden plugins. A hidden plugin can't be enumerated, but can still be inspected by using its name.

The fewer plugins are represented by the PluginArray object, and of those, the more that are hidden, the more the user's privacy will be protected. Each exposed plugin increases the number of bits that can be derived for fingerprinting. Hiding a plugin helps, but unless it is an extremely rare plugin, it is likely that a site attempting to derive the list of plugins can still determine whether the plugin is supported or not by probing for it by name (the names of popular plugins are widely known). Therefore not exposing a plugin at all is preferred. Unfortunately, many legacy sites use this feature to determine, for example, which plugin to use to play video. Not exposing any plugins at all might therefore not be entirely plausible.

The PluginArray objects created by a user agent must not be live. The set of plugins represented by the objects must not change once an object is created, except when it is updated by the refresh() method.

Each plugin represented by a PluginArray can support a number of MIME types. For each such plugin, the user agent must pick one or more of these MIME types to be those that are explicitly supported.

The explicitly supported MIME types of a plugin are those that are exposed through the Plugin and MimeTypeArray interfaces. As with plugins themselves, any variation between users regarding what is exposed allows sites to fingerprint users. User agents are therefore encouraged to expose the same MIME types for all users of a plugin, regardless of the actual types supported... at least, within the constraints imposed by compatibility with legacy content.

The supported property indices of a PluginArray object are the numbers from zero to the number of non-hidden plugins represented by the object, if any. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The length attribute must return the number of non-hidden plugins represented by the object. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The item() method of a PluginArray object must return null if the argument is not one of the object's supported property indices, and otherwise must return the result of running the following steps, using the method's argument as index:

  1. Let list be the Plugin objects representing the non-hidden plugins represented by the PluginArray object.

  2. Sort list alphabetically by the name of each Plugin.

  3. Return the indexth entry in list.

It is important for privacy that the order of plugins not leak additional information, e.g. the order in which plugins were installed.

The supported property names of a PluginArray object are the values of the name attributes of all the Plugin objects represented by the PluginArray object. The properties exposed in this way must be unenumerable. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The namedItem() method of a PluginArray object must return null if the argument is not one of the object's supported property names, and otherwise must return the Plugin object, of those represented by the PluginArray object, that has a name equal to the method's argument.

The refresh() method of the PluginArray object of a Navigator object, when invoked, must check to see if any plugins have been installed or reconfigured since the user agent created the PluginArray object. If so, and the method's argument is true, then the user agent must act as if the location.reload() method was called instead. Otherwise, the user agent must update the PluginArray object and MimeTypeArray object created for attributes of that Navigator object, and the Plugin and MimeType objects created for those PluginArray and MimeTypeArray objects, using the same Plugin objects for cases where the name is the same, and the same MimeType objects for cases where the type is the same, and creating new objects for cases where there were no matching objects immediately prior to the refresh() call. Old Plugin and MimeType objects must continue to return the same values that they had prior to the update, though naturally now the data is stale and may appear inconsistent (for example, an old MimeType entry might list as its enabledPlugin a Plugin object that no longer lists that MimeType as a supported MimeType).


A MimeTypeArray object represents the MIME types explicitly supported by plugins supported by the user agent, each of which is represented by a MimeType object.

The MimeTypeArray objects created by a user agent must not be live. The set of MIME types represented by the objects must not change once an object is created, except when it is updated by the PluginArray object's refresh() method.

The supported property indices of a MimeTypeArray object are the numbers from zero to the number of MIME types explicitly supported by non-hidden plugins represented by the corresponding PluginArray object, if any. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The length attribute must return the number of MIME types explicitly supported by non-hidden plugins represented by the corresponding PluginArray object, if any. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The item() method of a MimeTypeArray object must return null if the argument is not one of the object's supported property indices, and otherwise must return the result of running the following steps, using the method's argument as index:

  1. Let list be the MimeType objects representing the MIME types explicitly supported by non-hidden plugins represented by the corresponding PluginArray object, if any.

  2. Sort list alphabetically by the type of each MimeType.

  3. Return the indexth entry in list.

It is important for privacy that the order of MIME types not leak additional information, e.g. the order in which plugins were installed.

The supported property names of a MimeTypeArray object are the values of the type attributes of all the MimeType objects represented by the MimeTypeArray object. The properties exposed in this way must be unenumerable. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The namedItem() method of a MimeTypeArray object must return null if the argument is not one of the object's supported property names, and otherwise must return the MimeType object that has a type equal to the method's argument.


A Plugin object represents a plugin. It has several attributes to provide details about the plugin, and can be enumerated to obtain the list of MIME types that it explicitly supports.

The Plugin objects created by a user agent must not be live. The set of MIME types represented by the objects, and the values of the objects' attributes, must not change once an object is created, except when updated by the PluginArray object's refresh() method.

The reported MIME types for a Plugin object are the MIME types explicitly supported by the corresponding plugin when this object was last created or updated by PluginArray.refresh(), whichever happened most recently.

The supported property indices of a Plugin object are the numbers from zero to the number of reported MIME types. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The length attribute must return the number of reported MIME types. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The item() method of a Plugin object must return null if the argument is not one of the object's supported property indices, and otherwise must return the result of running the following steps, using the method's argument as index:

  1. Let list be the MimeType objects representing the reported MIME types.

  2. Sort list alphabetically by the type of each MimeType.

  3. Return the indexth entry in list.

It is important for privacy that the order of MIME types not leak additional information, e.g. the order in which plugins were installed.

The supported property names of a Plugin object are the values of the type attributes of the MimeType objects representing the reported MIME types. The properties exposed in this way must be unenumerable. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

The namedItem() method of a Plugin object must return null if the argument is not one of the object's supported property names, and otherwise must return the MimeType object that has a type equal to the method's argument.

The name attribute must return the plugin's name.

The description and filename attributes must return user-agent-defined (or, in all likelihood, plugin-defined) strings. In each case, the same string must be returned each time, except that the strings returned may change when the PluginArray.refresh() method updates the object.

If the values returned by the description or filename attributes vary between versions of a plugin, they can be used both as a fingerprinting vector and, even more importantly, as a trivial way to determine what security vulnerabilities a plugin (and thus a browser) may have. It is thus highly recommended that the description attribute just return the same value as the name attribute, and that the filename attribute return the empty string. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)


A MimeType object represents a MIME type that is, or was, explicitly supported by a plugin.

The MimeType objects created by a user agent must not be live. The values of the objects' attributes must not change once an object is created, except when updated by the PluginArray object's refresh() method.

The type attribute must return the valid MIME type with no parameters describing the MIME type.

The description and suffixes attributes must return user-agent-defined (or, in all likelihood, plugin-defined) strings. In each case, the same string must be returned each time, except that the strings returned may change when the PluginArray.refresh() method updates the object.

If the values returned by the description or suffxies attributes vary between versions of a plugin, they can be used both as a fingerprinting vector and, even more importantly, as a trivial way to determine what security vulnerabilities a plugin (and thus a browser) may have. It is thus highly recommended that the description attribute just return the same value as the type attribute, and that the suffixes attribute return the empty string. (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

Commas in the suffixes attribute are interpreted as separating subsequent filename extensions, as in "htm,html".

The enabledPlugin attribute must return the Plugin object that represents the plugin that explicitly supported the MIME type that this MimeType object represents when this object was last created or updated by PluginArray.refresh(), whichever happened most recently.


The navigator.javaEnabled attribute must return true if the user agent supports a plugin that supports the MIME type "application/x-java-vm". (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

7.6.2 The External interface

The external attribute of the Window interface must return an instance of the External interface. The same object must be returned each time.

interface External {
  void AddSearchProvider(DOMString engineURL);
  unsigned long IsSearchProviderInstalled(DOMString engineURL);
};
window . external . AddSearchProvider( url )

Adds the search engine described by the OpenSearch description document at url. [OPENSEARCH]

The OpenSearch description document has to be on the same server as the script that calls this method.

installed = window . external . IsSearchProviderInstalled( url )

Returns a value based on comparing url to the URLs of the results pages of the installed search engines.

0
None of the installed search engines match url.
1
One or more installed search engines match url, but none are the user's default search engine.
2
The user's default search engine matches url.

The url is compared to the URLs of the results pages of the installed search engines using a prefix match. Only results pages on the same domain as the script that calls this method are checked.

Another way of exposing search engines using OpenSearch description documents is using a link element with the search link type.

The AddSearchProvider() method, when invoked, must run the following steps:

  1. Optionally, abort these steps. User agents may implement the method as a stub method that never does anything, or may arbitrarily ignore invocations with particular arguments for security, privacy, or usability reasons.

  2. Resolve the value of the method's first argument relative to the API base URL specified by the entry settings object.

  3. If this fails, abort these steps.

  4. Process the resulting absolute URL as the URL to an OpenSearch description document. [OPENSEARCH]

The IsSearchProviderInstalled() method, when invoked, must run the following steps: (This is a fingerprinting vector.)

  1. Optionally, return 0 and abort these steps. User agents may implement the method as a stub method that never returns a non-zero value, or may arbitrarily ignore invocations with particular arguments for security, privacy, or usability reasons.

  2. If the origin specified by the entry settings object is an opaque identifier (i.e. it has no host component), then return 0 and abort these steps.

  3. Let host1 be the host component of the origin specified by the entry settings object.

  4. Resolve the scriptURL argument relative to the API base URL specified by the entry settings object.

  5. If this fails, return 0 and abort these steps.

  6. Let host2 be the host component of the resulting parsed URL.

  7. If the longest suffix in the Public Suffix List that matches the end of host1 is different than the longest suffix in the Public Suffix List that matches the end of host2, then return 0 and abort these steps. [PSL]

    If the next domain component of host1 and host2 after their common suffix are not the same, then return 0 and abort these steps.

  8. Let search engines be the list of search engines known by the user agent and made available to the user by the user agent for which the resulting absolute URL is a prefix match of the search engine's URL, if any. For search engines registered using OpenSearch description documents, the URL of the search engine corresponds to the URL given in a Url element whose rel attribute is "results" (the default). [OPENSEARCH]

  9. If search engines is empty, return 0 and abort these steps.

  10. If the user's default search engine (as determined by the user agent) is one of the search engines in search engines, then return 2 and abort these steps.

  11. Return 1.

7.7 Images

[Exposed=Window,Worker]
interface ImageBitmap {
  readonly attribute unsigned long width;
  readonly attribute unsigned long height;
};

typedef (HTMLImageElement or
         HTMLVideoElement or
         HTMLCanvasElement or
         Blob or
         ImageData or
         CanvasRenderingContext2D or
         ImageBitmap) ImageBitmapSource;

[NoInterfaceObject, Exposed=Window,Worker]
interface ImageBitmapFactories {
  Promise createImageBitmap(ImageBitmapSource image, optional long sx, long sy, long sw, long sh);
};
Window implements ImageBitmapFactories;
WorkerGlobalScope implements ImageBitmapFactories;

An ImageBitmap object represents a bitmap image that can be painted to a canvas without undue latency.

The exact judgement of what is undue latency of this is left up to the implementer, but in general if making use of the bitmap requires network I/O, or even local disk I/O, then the latency is probably undue; whereas if it only requires a blocking read from a GPU or system RAM, the latency is probably acceptable.

promise = Window . createImageBitmap(image [, sx, sy, sw, sh ] )

Takes image, which can be an img element, video, or canvas element, a Blob object, an ImageData object, a CanvasRenderingContext2D object, or another ImageBitmap object, and returns a Promise that is resolved when a new ImageBitmap is created.

If no ImageBitmap object can be constructed, for example because the provided image data is not actually an image, then the promise is rejected instead.

If sx, sy, sw, and sh arguments are provided, the source image is cropped to the given pixels, with any pixels missing in the original replaced by transparent black. These coordinates are in the source image's pixel coordinate space, not in CSS pixels.

Throws an InvalidStateError exception if the source image is not in a valid state (e.g. an img element that hasn't finished loading, or a CanvasRenderingContext2D object whose bitmap data has zero length along one or both dimensions). Throws a SecurityError exception if the script is not allowed to access the image data of the source image (e.g. a video that is CORS-cross-origin, or a canvas being drawn on by a script in a worker from another origin).

imageBitmap . width

Returns the intrinsic width of the image, in CSS pixels.

imageBitmap . height

Returns the intrinsic height of the image, in CSS pixels.

An ImageBitmap object always has associated bitmap data, with a width and a height. However, it is possible for this data to be corrupted. If an ImageBitmap object's media data can be decoded without errors, it is said to be fully decodable.

An ImageBitmap object can be obtained from a variety of different objects, using the createImageBitmap() method. When invoked, the method must act as follows:

If image is an img element
  1. If either the sw or sh arguments are specified but zero, throw an IndexSizeError exception and abort these steps.

  2. If the img element is not completely available, then throw an InvalidStateError exception and abort these steps.

  3. If the origin of the img element's image is not the same origin as the origin specified by the entry settings object, then throw a SecurityError exception and abort these steps.

  4. If the img element's media data is not a bitmap (e.g. it's a vector graphic), then throw an InvalidStateError exception and abort these steps.

  5. Create a new ImageBitmap object.

  6. Let the ImageBitmap object's bitmap data be a copy of the img element's media data, cropped to the source rectangle. If this is an animated image, the ImageBitmap object's bitmap data must only be taken from the default image of the animation (the one that the format defines is to be used when animation is not supported or is disabled), or, if there is no such image, the first frame of the animation.

  7. Return a new Promise, but continue running these steps asynchronously.

  8. Fulfill the Promise's associated resolver, with the new ImageBitmap object as the value.

If image is a video element
  1. If either the sw or sh arguments are specified but zero, throw an IndexSizeError exception and abort these steps.

  2. If the video element's networkState attribute is NETWORK_EMPTY, then throw an InvalidStateError exception and abort these steps.

  3. If the origin of the video element is not the same origin as the origin specified by the entry settings object, then throw a SecurityError exception and abort these steps.

  4. If the video element's readyState attribute is either HAVE_NOTHING or HAVE_METADATA, then throw an InvalidStateError exception and abort these steps.

  5. Create a new ImageBitmap object.

  6. Let the ImageBitmap object's bitmap data be a copy of the frame at the current playback position, at the media resource's intrinsic width and intrinsic height (i.e. after any aspect-ratio correction has been applied), cropped to the source rectangle.

  7. Return a new Promise, but continue running these steps asynchronously.

  8. Fulfill the Promise's associated resolver, with the new ImageBitmap object as the value.

If image is a canvas element
  1. If either the sw or sh arguments are specified but zero, throw an IndexSizeError exception and abort these steps.

  2. If the canvas element's bitmap data does not have its origin-clean flag set, then throw an InvalidStateError exception and abort these steps.

  3. If the canvas element's bitmap has either a horizontal dimension or a vertical dimension equal to zero, then throw an InvalidStateError exception and abort these steps.

  4. Create a new ImageBitmap object.

  5. Let the ImageBitmap object's bitmap data be a copy of the canvas element's bitmap data, cropped to the source rectangle.

  6. Return a new Promise, but continue running these steps asynchronously.

  7. Fulfill the Promise's associated resolver, with the new ImageBitmap object as the value.

If image is a Blob object
  1. If either the sw or sh arguments are specified but zero, throw an IndexSizeError exception and abort these steps.

  2. If the Blob object has been disabled through the close() method, then throw an InvalidStateError exception and abort these steps.

  3. Return a new Promise, but continue running these steps asynchronously.

  4. Read the Blob object's data. If an error occurs during reading of the object, then reject the Promise's associated resolver, with null as the value, and abort these steps.

  5. Apply the image sniffing rules to determine the file format of the image data, with MIME type of the Blob (as given by the Blob object's type attribute) giving the official type.

  6. If the image data is not in a supported file format (e.g. it's not actually an image at all), or if the image data is corrupted in some fatal way such that the image dimensions cannot be obtained, then reject the Promise's associated resolver, with null as the value, and abort these steps.

  7. Create a new ImageBitmap object.

  8. Let the ImageBitmap object's bitmap data be the image data read from the Blob object, cropped to the source rectangle. If this is an animated image, the ImageBitmap object's bitmap data must only be taken from the default image of the animation (the one that the format defines is to be used when animation is not supported or is disabled), or, if there is no such image, the first frame of the animation.

  9. Fulfill the Promise's associated resolver, with the new ImageBitmap object as the value.

If image is an ImageData object
  1. If either the sw or sh arguments are specified but zero, throw an IndexSizeError exception and abort these steps.

  2. Create a new ImageBitmap object.

  3. Let the ImageBitmap object's bitmap data be the image data given by the ImageData object, cropped to the source rectangle.

  4. Return a new Promise, but continue running these steps asynchronously.

  5. Fulfill the Promise's associated resolver, with the new ImageBitmap object as the value.

If image is a CanvasRenderingContext2D object
  1. If either the sw or sh arguments are specified but zero, throw an IndexSizeError exception and abort these steps.

  2. If the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's scratch bitmap does not have its origin-clean flag set, then throw an InvalidStateError exception and abort these steps.

  3. If the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's scratch bitmap has either a horizontal dimension or a vertical dimension equal to zero, then throw an InvalidStateError exception and abort these steps.

  4. Create a new ImageBitmap object.

  5. Let the ImageBitmap object's bitmap data be a copy of the CanvasRenderingContext2D object's scratch bitmap, cropped to the source rectangle.

  6. Return a new Promise, but continue running these steps asynchronously.

  7. Fulfill the Promise's associated resolver, with the new ImageBitmap object as the value.

If image is an ImageBitmap object
  1. If either the sw or sh arguments are specified but zero, throw an IndexSizeError exception and abort these steps.

  2. Create a new ImageBitmap object.

  3. Let the ImageBitmap object's bitmap data be a copy of the image argument's bitmap data, cropped to the source rectangle.

  4. Return a new Promise, but continue running these steps asynchronously.

  5. Fulfill the Promise's associated resolver, with the new ImageBitmap object as the value.

When the steps above require that the user agent crop bitmap data to the source rectangle, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. Let input be the image data being cropped.

  2. If the sx, sy, sw, and sh arguments are omitted, return input.

  3. Place input on an infinite transparent black grid plane, positioned so that it's top left corner is at the origin of the plane, with the x-coordinate increasing to the right, and the y-coordinate increasing down, and with each pixel in the input image data occupying a cell on the plane's grid.

  4. Let output be the rectangle on the plane denoted by the rectangle whose corners are the four points (sx, sy), (sx+sw, sy), (sx+sw, sy+sh), (sx, sy+sh).

    If either sw or sh are negative, then the top-left corner of this rectangle will be to the left or above the (sx, sy) point. If any of the pixels on this rectangle are outside the area where the input bitmap was placed, then they will be transparent black in output.

  5. Return output.

The width attribute must return the ImageBitmap object's width, in CSS pixels.

The height attribute must return the ImageBitmap object's height, in CSS pixels.

Using this API, a sprite sheet can be precut and prepared:

var sprites = {};
function loadMySprites() {
  var image = new Image();
  image.src = 'mysprites.png';
  var resolver;
  var promise = new Promise(function (arg) { resolver = arg });
  image.onload = function () {
    resolver.resolve(Promise.every(
      createImageBitmap(image,  0,  0, 40, 40).then(function (image) { sprites.woman = image }),
      createImageBitmap(image, 40,  0, 40, 40).then(function (image) { sprites.man   = image }),
      createImageBitmap(image, 80,  0, 40, 40).then(function (image) { sprites.tree  = image }),
      createImageBitmap(image,  0, 40, 40, 40).then(function (image) { sprites.hut   = image }),
      createImageBitmap(image, 40, 40, 40, 40).then(function (image) { sprites.apple = image }),
      createImageBitmap(image, 80, 40, 40, 40).then(function (image) { sprites.snake = image }),
    ));
  };
  return promise;
}

function runDemo() {
  var canvas = document.querySelector('canvas#demo');
  var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
  context.drawImage(sprites.tree, 30, 10);
  context.drawImage(sprites.snake, 70, 10);
}

loadMySprites().then(runDemo);