Table of contents

  1. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Where does this specification fit?
    2. 1.2 Is this HTML5?
    3. 1.3 Background
    4. 1.4 Audience
    5. 1.5 Scope
    6. 1.6 History
    7. 1.7 Design notes
      1. 1.7.1 Serializability of script execution
      2. 1.7.2 Compliance with other specifications
      3. 1.7.3 Extensibility
    8. 1.8 HTML vs XHTML
    9. 1.9 Structure of this specification
      1. 1.9.1 How to read this specification
      2. 1.9.2 Typographic conventions
    10. 1.10 Privacy concerns
    11. 1.11 A quick introduction to HTML
      1. 1.11.1 Writing secure applications with HTML
      2. 1.11.2 Common pitfalls to avoid when using the scripting APIs
      3. 1.11.3 How to catch mistakes when writing HTML: validators and conformance checkers
    12. 1.12 Conformance requirements for authors
      1. 1.12.1 Presentational markup
      2. 1.12.2 Syntax errors
      3. 1.12.3 Restrictions on content models and on attribute values
    13. 1.13 Suggested reading
  2. 2 Common infrastructure
    1. 2.1 Terminology
      1. 2.1.1 Resources
      2. 2.1.2 XML
      3. 2.1.3 DOM trees
      4. 2.1.4 Scripting
      5. 2.1.5 Plugins
      6. 2.1.6 Character encodings
    2. 2.2 Conformance requirements
      1. 2.2.1 Conformance classes
      2. 2.2.2 Dependencies
      3. 2.2.3 Extensibility
      4. 2.2.4 Interactions with XPath and XSLT
    3. 2.3 Case-sensitivity and string comparison
    4. 2.4 Common microsyntaxes
      1. 2.4.1 Common parser idioms
      2. 2.4.2 Boolean attributes
      3. 2.4.3 Keywords and enumerated attributes
      4. 2.4.4 Numbers
        1. 2.4.4.1 Signed integers
        2. 2.4.4.2 Non-negative integers
        3. 2.4.4.3 Floating-point numbers
        4. 2.4.4.4 Percentages and lengths
        5. 2.4.4.5 Lists of integers
        6. 2.4.4.6 Lists of dimensions
      5. 2.4.5 Dates and times
        1. 2.4.5.1 Months
        2. 2.4.5.2 Dates
        3. 2.4.5.3 Yearless dates
        4. 2.4.5.4 Times
        5. 2.4.5.5 Local dates and times
        6. 2.4.5.6 Time zones
        7. 2.4.5.7 Global dates and times
        8. 2.4.5.8 Weeks
        9. 2.4.5.9 Durations
        10. 2.4.5.10 Vaguer moments in time
      6. 2.4.6 Colors
      7. 2.4.7 Space-separated tokens
      8. 2.4.8 Comma-separated tokens
      9. 2.4.9 References
      10. 2.4.10 Media queries
    5. 2.5 URLs
      1. 2.5.1 Terminology
      2. 2.5.2 Resolving URLs
      3. 2.5.3 Dynamic changes to base URLs
    6. 2.6 Fetching resources
      1. 2.6.1 Terminology
      2. 2.6.2 Processing model
      3. 2.6.3 Encrypted HTTP and related security concerns
      4. 2.6.4 Determining the type of a resource
      5. 2.6.5 Extracting character encodings from meta elements
      6. 2.6.6 CORS settings attributes
      7. 2.6.7 CORS-enabled fetch
    7. 2.7 Common DOM interfaces
      1. 2.7.1 Reflecting content attributes in IDL attributes
      2. 2.7.2 Collections
        1. 2.7.2.1 HTMLAllCollection
        2. 2.7.2.2 HTMLFormControlsCollection
        3. 2.7.2.3 HTMLOptionsCollection
        4. 2.7.2.4 HTMLPropertiesCollection
      3. 2.7.3 DOMStringMap
      4. 2.7.4 DOMElementMap
      5. 2.7.5 Transferable objects
      6. 2.7.6 Safe passing of structured data
      7. 2.7.7 Callbacks
      8. 2.7.8 Garbage collection
    8. 2.8 Namespaces
  3. 3 Semantics, structure, and APIs of HTML documents
    1. 3.1 Documents
      1. 3.1.1 The Document object
      2. 3.1.2 Resource metadata management
      3. 3.1.3 DOM tree accessors
      4. 3.1.4 Loading XML documents
    2. 3.2 Elements
      1. 3.2.1 Semantics
      2. 3.2.2 Elements in the DOM
      3. 3.2.3 Element definitions
        1. 3.2.3.1 Attributes
      4. 3.2.4 Content models
        1. 3.2.4.1 Kinds of content
          1. 3.2.4.1.1 Metadata content
          2. 3.2.4.1.2 Flow content
          3. 3.2.4.1.3 Sectioning content
          4. 3.2.4.1.4 Heading content
          5. 3.2.4.1.5 Phrasing content
          6. 3.2.4.1.6 Embedded content
          7. 3.2.4.1.7 Interactive content
          8. 3.2.4.1.8 Palpable content
          9. 3.2.4.1.9 Script-supporting elements
        2. 3.2.4.2 Transparent content models
        3. 3.2.4.3 Paragraphs
      5. 3.2.5 Global attributes
        1. 3.2.5.1 The id attribute
        2. 3.2.5.2 The title attribute
        3. 3.2.5.3 The lang and xml:lang attributes
        4. 3.2.5.4 The translate attribute
        5. 3.2.5.5 The xml:base attribute (XML only)
        6. 3.2.5.6 The dir attribute
        7. 3.2.5.7 The class attribute
        8. 3.2.5.8 The style attribute
        9. 3.2.5.9 Embedding custom non-visible data with the data-* attributes
      6. 3.2.6 Requirements relating to the bidirectional algorithm
        1. 3.2.6.1 Authoring conformance criteria for bidirectional-algorithm formatting characters
        2. 3.2.6.2 User agent conformance criteria
      7. 3.2.7 WAI-ARIA
  4. 4 The elements of HTML
    1. 4.1 The root element
      1. 4.1.1 The html element
    2. 4.2 Document metadata
      1. 4.2.1 The head element
      2. 4.2.2 The title element
      3. 4.2.3 The base element
      4. 4.2.4 The link element
      5. 4.2.5 The meta element
        1. 4.2.5.1 Standard metadata names
        2. 4.2.5.2 Other metadata names
        3. 4.2.5.3 Pragma directives
        4. 4.2.5.4 Other pragma directives
        5. 4.2.5.5 Specifying the document's character encoding
      6. 4.2.6 The style element
        1. 4.2.6.1 The @global rule
      7. 4.2.7 Interactions of styling and scripting
    3. 4.3 Sections
      1. 4.3.1 The body element
      2. 4.3.2 The article element
      3. 4.3.3 The section element
      4. 4.3.4 The nav element
      5. 4.3.5 The aside element
      6. 4.3.6 The h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, and h6 elements
      7. 4.3.7 The hgroup element
      8. 4.3.8 The header element
      9. 4.3.9 The footer element
      10. 4.3.10 The address element
      11. 4.3.11 Headings and sections
        1. 4.3.11.1 Creating an outline
        2. 4.3.11.2 Sample outlines
      12. 4.3.12 Usage summary
        1. 4.3.12.1 Article or section?
    4. 4.4 Grouping content
      1. 4.4.1 The p element
      2. 4.4.2 The hr element
      3. 4.4.3 The pre element
      4. 4.4.4 The blockquote element
      5. 4.4.5 The ol element
      6. 4.4.6 The ul element
      7. 4.4.7 The li element
      8. 4.4.8 The dl element
      9. 4.4.9 The dt element
      10. 4.4.10 The dd element
      11. 4.4.11 The figure element
      12. 4.4.12 The figcaption element
      13. 4.4.13 The main element
      14. 4.4.14 The div element
    5. 4.5 Text-level semantics
      1. 4.5.1 The a element
      2. 4.5.2 The em element
      3. 4.5.3 The strong element
      4. 4.5.4 The small element
      5. 4.5.5 The s element
      6. 4.5.6 The cite element
      7. 4.5.7 The q element
      8. 4.5.8 The dfn element
      9. 4.5.9 The abbr element
      10. 4.5.10 The data element
      11. 4.5.11 The time element
      12. 4.5.12 The code element
      13. 4.5.13 The var element
      14. 4.5.14 The samp element
      15. 4.5.15 The kbd element
      16. 4.5.16 The sub and sup elements
      17. 4.5.17 The i element
      18. 4.5.18 The b element
      19. 4.5.19 The u element
      20. 4.5.20 The mark element
      21. 4.5.21 The ruby element
      22. 4.5.22 The rt element
      23. 4.5.23 The rp element
      24. 4.5.24 The bdi element
      25. 4.5.25 The bdo element
      26. 4.5.26 The span element
      27. 4.5.27 The br element
      28. 4.5.28 The wbr element
      29. 4.5.29 Usage summary
    6. 4.6 Edits
      1. 4.6.1 The ins element
      2. 4.6.2 The del element
      3. 4.6.3 Attributes common to ins and del elements
      4. 4.6.4 Edits and paragraphs
      5. 4.6.5 Edits and lists
      6. 4.6.6 Edits and tables
    7. 4.7 Embedded content
      1. 4.7.1 The img element
        1. 4.7.1.1 Requirements for providing text to act as an alternative for images
          1. 4.7.1.1.1 General guidelines
          2. 4.7.1.1.2 A link or button containing nothing but the image
          3. 4.7.1.1.3 A phrase or paragraph with an alternative graphical representation: charts, diagrams, graphs, maps, illustrations
          4. 4.7.1.1.4 A short phrase or label with an alternative graphical representation: icons, logos
          5. 4.7.1.1.5 Text that has been rendered to a graphic for typographical effect
          6. 4.7.1.1.6 A graphical representation of some of the surrounding text
          7. 4.7.1.1.7 A purely decorative image that doesn't add any information
          8. 4.7.1.1.8 A group of images that form a single larger picture with no links
          9. 4.7.1.1.9 A group of images that form a single larger picture with links
          10. 4.7.1.1.10 A key part of the content
          11. 4.7.1.1.11 An image not intended for the user
          12. 4.7.1.1.12 An image in an e-mail or private document intended for a specific person who is known to be able to view images
          13. 4.7.1.1.13 Guidance for markup generators
          14. 4.7.1.1.14 Guidance for conformance checkers
        2. 4.7.1.2 Adaptive images
      2. 4.7.2 The iframe element
      3. 4.7.3 The embed element
      4. 4.7.4 The object element
      5. 4.7.5 The param element
      6. 4.7.6 The video element
      7. 4.7.7 The audio element
      8. 4.7.8 The source element
      9. 4.7.9 The track element
      10. 4.7.10 Media elements
        1. 4.7.10.1 Error codes
        2. 4.7.10.2 Location of the media resource
        3. 4.7.10.3 MIME types
        4. 4.7.10.4 Network states
        5. 4.7.10.5 Loading the media resource
        6. 4.7.10.6 Offsets into the media resource
        7. 4.7.10.7 Ready states
        8. 4.7.10.8 Playing the media resource
        9. 4.7.10.9 Seeking
        10. 4.7.10.10 Media resources with multiple media tracks
          1. 4.7.10.10.1 AudioTrackList and VideoTrackList objects
          2. 4.7.10.10.2 Selecting specific audio and video tracks declaratively
        11. 4.7.10.11 Synchronising multiple media elements
          1. 4.7.10.11.1 Introduction
          2. 4.7.10.11.2 Media controllers
          3. 4.7.10.11.3 Assigning a media controller declaratively
        12. 4.7.10.12 Timed text tracks
          1. 4.7.10.12.1 Text track model
          2. 4.7.10.12.2 Sourcing in-band text tracks
          3. 4.7.10.12.3 Sourcing out-of-band text tracks
          4. 4.7.10.12.4 Guidelines for exposing cues in various formats as text track cues
          5. 4.7.10.12.5 Text track API
          6. 4.7.10.12.6 Text tracks describing chapters
          7. 4.7.10.12.7 Event handlers for objects of the text track APIs
          8. 4.7.10.12.8 Best practices for metadata text tracks
        13. 4.7.10.13 User interface
        14. 4.7.10.14 Time ranges
        15. 4.7.10.15 The TrackEvent interface
        16. 4.7.10.16 Event summary
        17. 4.7.10.17 Security and privacy considerations
        18. 4.7.10.18 Best practices for authors using media elements
        19. 4.7.10.19 Best practices for implementors of media elements
      11. 4.7.11 The map element
      12. 4.7.12 The area element
      13. 4.7.13 Image maps
        1. 4.7.13.1 Authoring
        2. 4.7.13.2 Processing model
      14. 4.7.14 MathML
      15. 4.7.15 SVG
      16. 4.7.16 Dimension attributes
    8. 4.8 Links
      1. 4.8.1 Introduction
      2. 4.8.2 Links created by a and area elements
      3. 4.8.3 Following hyperlinks
      4. 4.8.4 Downloading resources
        1. 4.8.4.1 Hyperlink auditing
      5. 4.8.5 Link types
        1. 4.8.5.1 Link type "alternate"
        2. 4.8.5.2 Link type "author"
        3. 4.8.5.3 Link type "bookmark"
        4. 4.8.5.4 Link type "external"
        5. 4.8.5.5 Link type "help"
        6. 4.8.5.6 Link type "icon"
        7. 4.8.5.7 Link type "license"
        8. 4.8.5.8 Link type "nofollow"
        9. 4.8.5.9 Link type "noreferrer"
        10. 4.8.5.10 Link type "pingback"
        11. 4.8.5.11 Link type "prefetch"
        12. 4.8.5.12 Link type "search"
        13. 4.8.5.13 Link type "sidebar"
        14. 4.8.5.14 Link type "stylesheet"
        15. 4.8.5.15 Link type "tag"
        16. 4.8.5.16 Sequential link types
          1. 4.8.5.16.1 Link type "next"
          2. 4.8.5.16.2 Link type "prev"
        17. 4.8.5.17 Other link types
    9. 4.9 Tabular data
      1. 4.9.1 The table element
        1. 4.9.1.1 Techniques for describing tables
        2. 4.9.1.2 Techniques for table design
      2. 4.9.2 The caption element
      3. 4.9.3 The colgroup element
      4. 4.9.4 The col element
      5. 4.9.5 The tbody element
      6. 4.9.6 The thead element
      7. 4.9.7 The tfoot element
      8. 4.9.8 The tr element
      9. 4.9.9 The td element
      10. 4.9.10 The th element
      11. 4.9.11 Attributes common to td and th elements
      12. 4.9.12 Processing model
        1. 4.9.12.1 Forming a table
        2. 4.9.12.2 Forming relationships between data cells and header cells
      13. 4.9.13 Table sorting model
      14. 4.9.14 Examples
    10. 4.10 Forms
      1. 4.10.1 Introduction
        1. 4.10.1.1 Writing a form's user interface
        2. 4.10.1.2 Implementing the server-side processing for a form
        3. 4.10.1.3 Configuring a form to communicate with a server
        4. 4.10.1.4 Client-side form validation
        5. 4.10.1.5 Enabling client-side automatic filling of form controls
        6. 4.10.1.6 Improving the user experience on mobile devices
        7. 4.10.1.7 The difference between the field type, the autofill field name, and the input modality
        8. 4.10.1.8 Date, time, and number formats
      2. 4.10.2 Categories
      3. 4.10.3 The form element
      4. 4.10.4 The label element
      5. 4.10.5 The input element
        1. 4.10.5.1 States of the type attribute
          1. 4.10.5.1.1 Hidden state (type=hidden)
          2. 4.10.5.1.2 Text (type=text) state and Search state (type=search)
          3. 4.10.5.1.3 Telephone state (type=tel)
          4. 4.10.5.1.4 URL state (type=url)
          5. 4.10.5.1.5 E-mail state (type=email)
          6. 4.10.5.1.6 Password state (type=password)
          7. 4.10.5.1.7 Date and Time state (type=datetime)
          8. 4.10.5.1.8 Date state (type=date)
          9. 4.10.5.1.9 Month state (type=month)
          10. 4.10.5.1.10 Week state (type=week)
          11. 4.10.5.1.11 Time state (type=time)
          12. 4.10.5.1.12 Local Date and Time state (type=datetime-local)
          13. 4.10.5.1.13 Number state (type=number)
          14. 4.10.5.1.14 Range state (type=range)
          15. 4.10.5.1.15 Color state (type=color)
          16. 4.10.5.1.16 Checkbox state (type=checkbox)
          17. 4.10.5.1.17 Radio Button state (type=radio)
          18. 4.10.5.1.18 File Upload state (type=file)
          19. 4.10.5.1.19 Submit Button state (type=submit)
          20. 4.10.5.1.20 Image Button state (type=image)
          21. 4.10.5.1.21 Reset Button state (type=reset)
          22. 4.10.5.1.22 Button state (type=button)
        2. 4.10.5.2 Implemention notes regarding localization of form controls
        3. 4.10.5.3 Common input element attributes
          1. 4.10.5.3.1 The maxlength and minlength attributes
          2. 4.10.5.3.2 The size attribute
          3. 4.10.5.3.3 The readonly attribute
          4. 4.10.5.3.4 The required attribute
          5. 4.10.5.3.5 The multiple attribute
          6. 4.10.5.3.6 The pattern attribute
          7. 4.10.5.3.7 The min and max attributes
          8. 4.10.5.3.8 The step attribute
          9. 4.10.5.3.9 The list attribute
          10. 4.10.5.3.10 The placeholder attribute
        4. 4.10.5.4 Common input element APIs
        5. 4.10.5.5 Common event behaviors
      6. 4.10.6 The button element
      7. 4.10.7 The select element
      8. 4.10.8 The datalist element
      9. 4.10.9 The optgroup element
      10. 4.10.10 The option element
      11. 4.10.11 The textarea element
      12. 4.10.12 The keygen element
      13. 4.10.13 The output element
      14. 4.10.14 The progress element
      15. 4.10.15 The meter element
      16. 4.10.16 The fieldset element
      17. 4.10.17 The legend element
      18. 4.10.18 Form control infrastructure
        1. 4.10.18.1 A form control's value
        2. 4.10.18.2 Mutability
        3. 4.10.18.3 Association of controls and forms
      19. 4.10.19 Attributes common to form controls
        1. 4.10.19.1 Naming form controls: the name attribute
        2. 4.10.19.2 Submitting element directionality: the dirname attribute
        3. 4.10.19.3 Limiting user input length: the maxlength attribute
        4. 4.10.19.4 Setting minimum input length requirements: the minlength attribute
        5. 4.10.19.5 Enabling and disabling form controls: the disabled attribute
        6. 4.10.19.6 Form submission
          1. 4.10.19.6.1 Autofocusing a form control: the autofocus attribute
        7. 4.10.19.7 Input modalities: the inputmode attribute
        8. 4.10.19.8 Autofill
          1. 4.10.19.8.1 Autofilling form controls: the autocomplete attribute
          2. 4.10.19.8.2 Processing model
          3. 4.10.19.8.3 User interface for bulk autofill
          4. 4.10.19.8.4 The AutocompleteErrorEvent interface
      20. 4.10.20 APIs for the text field selections
      21. 4.10.21 Constraints
        1. 4.10.21.1 Definitions
        2. 4.10.21.2 Constraint validation
        3. 4.10.21.3 The constraint validation API
        4. 4.10.21.4 Security
      22. 4.10.22 Form submission
        1. 4.10.22.1 Introduction
        2. 4.10.22.2 Implicit submission
        3. 4.10.22.3 Form submission algorithm
        4. 4.10.22.4 Constructing the form data set
        5. 4.10.22.5 Selecting a form submission encoding
        6. 4.10.22.6 URL-encoded form data
        7. 4.10.22.7 Multipart form data
        8. 4.10.22.8 Plain text form data
      23. 4.10.23 Resetting a form
    11. 4.11 Interactive elements
      1. 4.11.1 The details element
      2. 4.11.2 The summary element
      3. 4.11.3 The menu element
      4. 4.11.4 The menuitem element
      5. 4.11.5 Context menus
        1. 4.11.5.1 Declaring a context menu
        2. 4.11.5.2 Processing model
        3. 4.11.5.3 The RelatedEvent interfaces
      6. 4.11.6 Commands
        1. 4.11.6.1 Facets
        2. 4.11.6.2 Using the a element to define a command
        3. 4.11.6.3 Using the button element to define a command
        4. 4.11.6.4 Using the input element to define a command
        5. 4.11.6.5 Using the option element to define a command
        6. 4.11.6.6 Using the menuitem element to define a command
        7. 4.11.6.7 Using the command attribute on menuitem elements to define a command indirectly
        8. 4.11.6.8 Using the accesskey attribute on a label element to define a command
        9. 4.11.6.9 Using the accesskey attribute on a legend element to define a command
        10. 4.11.6.10 Using the accesskey attribute to define a command on other elements
      7. 4.11.7 The dialog element
        1. 4.11.7.1 Anchor points
    12. 4.12 Scripting
      1. 4.12.1 The script element
        1. 4.12.1.1 Scripting languages
        2. 4.12.1.2 Restrictions for contents of script elements
        3. 4.12.1.3 Inline documentation for external scripts
        4. 4.12.1.4 Interaction of script elements and XSLT
      2. 4.12.2 The noscript element
      3. 4.12.3 The template element
        1. 4.12.3.1 Interaction of template elements with XSLT and XPath
      4. 4.12.4 The canvas element
        1. 4.12.4.1 Proxying canvases to workers
        2. 4.12.4.2 The 2D rendering context
          1. 4.12.4.2.1 Implementation notes
          2. 4.12.4.2.2 The canvas state
          3. 4.12.4.2.3 DrawingStyle objects
          4. 4.12.4.2.4 Line styles
          5. 4.12.4.2.5 Text styles
          6. 4.12.4.2.6 Building paths
          7. 4.12.4.2.7 Path2D objects
          8. 4.12.4.2.8 Transformations
          9. 4.12.4.2.9 Image sources for 2D rendering contexts
          10. 4.12.4.2.10 Fill and stroke styles
          11. 4.12.4.2.11 Drawing rectangles to the bitmap
          12. 4.12.4.2.12 Drawing text to the bitmap
          13. 4.12.4.2.13 Drawing paths to the canvas
          14. 4.12.4.2.14 Drawing images
          15. 4.12.4.2.15 Hit regions
          16. 4.12.4.2.16 Pixel manipulation
          17. 4.12.4.2.17 Compositing
          18. 4.12.4.2.18 Image smoothing
          19. 4.12.4.2.19 Shadows
          20. 4.12.4.2.20 Drawing model
          21. 4.12.4.2.21 Best practices
          22. 4.12.4.2.22 Examples
        3. 4.12.4.3 Color spaces and color correction
        4. 4.12.4.4 Serializing bitmaps to a file
        5. 4.12.4.5 Security with canvas elements
    13. 4.13 Common idioms without dedicated elements
      1. 4.13.1 The main part of the content
      2. 4.13.2 Bread crumb navigation
      3. 4.13.3 Tag clouds
      4. 4.13.4 Conversations
      5. 4.13.5 Footnotes
    14. 4.14 Disabled elements
    15. 4.15 Matching HTML elements using selectors
      1. 4.15.1 Case-sensitivity
      2. 4.15.2 Pseudo-classes
  5. 5 Microdata
    1. 5.1 Introduction
      1. 5.1.1 Overview
      2. 5.1.2 The basic syntax
      3. 5.1.3 Typed items
      4. 5.1.4 Global identifiers for items
      5. 5.1.5 Selecting names when defining vocabularies
      6. 5.1.6 Using the microdata DOM API
    2. 5.2 Encoding microdata
      1. 5.2.1 The microdata model
      2. 5.2.2 Items
      3. 5.2.3 Names: the itemprop attribute
      4. 5.2.4 Values
      5. 5.2.5 Associating names with items
      6. 5.2.6 Microdata and other namespaces
    3. 5.3 Microdata DOM API
    4. 5.4 Sample microdata vocabularies
      1. 5.4.1 vCard
        1. 5.4.1.1 Conversion to vCard
        2. 5.4.1.2 Examples
      2. 5.4.2 vEvent
        1. 5.4.2.1 Conversion to iCalendar
        2. 5.4.2.2 Examples
      3. 5.4.3 Licensing works
        1. 5.4.3.1 Examples
    5. 5.5 Converting HTML to other formats
      1. 5.5.1 JSON
  6. 6 Loading Web pages
    1. 6.1 Browsing contexts
      1. 6.1.1 Nested browsing contexts
        1. 6.1.1.1 Navigating nested browsing contexts in the DOM
      2. 6.1.2 Auxiliary browsing contexts
        1. 6.1.2.1 Navigating auxiliary browsing contexts in the DOM
      3. 6.1.3 Secondary browsing contexts
      4. 6.1.4 Security
      5. 6.1.5 Groupings of browsing contexts
      6. 6.1.6 Browsing context names
    2. 6.2 The Window object
      1. 6.2.1 Security
      2. 6.2.2 APIs for creating and navigating browsing contexts by name
      3. 6.2.3 Accessing other browsing contexts
      4. 6.2.4 Named access on the Window object
      5. 6.2.5 Garbage collection and browsing contexts
      6. 6.2.6 Closing browsing contexts
      7. 6.2.7 Browser interface elements
      8. 6.2.8 The WindowProxy object
    3. 6.3 Origin
      1. 6.3.1 Relaxing the same-origin restriction
    4. 6.4 Sandboxing
    5. 6.5 Session history and navigation
      1. 6.5.1 The session history of browsing contexts
      2. 6.5.2 The History interface
      3. 6.5.3 The Location interface
        1. 6.5.3.1 Security
      4. 6.5.4 Implementation notes for session history
    6. 6.6 Browsing the Web
      1. 6.6.1 Navigating across documents
      2. 6.6.2 Page load processing model for HTML files
      3. 6.6.3 Page load processing model for XML files
      4. 6.6.4 Page load processing model for text files
      5. 6.6.5 Page load processing model for multipart/x-mixed-replace resources
      6. 6.6.6 Page load processing model for media
      7. 6.6.7 Page load processing model for content that uses plugins
      8. 6.6.8 Page load processing model for inline content that doesn't have a DOM
      9. 6.6.9 Navigating to a fragment identifier
      10. 6.6.10 History traversal
        1. 6.6.10.1 The PopStateEvent interface
        2. 6.6.10.2 The HashChangeEvent interface
        3. 6.6.10.3 The PageTransitionEvent interface
      11. 6.6.11 Unloading documents
        1. 6.6.11.1 The BeforeUnloadEvent interface
      12. 6.6.12 Aborting a document load
    7. 6.7 Offline Web applications
      1. 6.7.1 Introduction
        1. 6.7.1.1 Supporting offline caching for legacy applications
        2. 6.7.1.2 Event summary
      2. 6.7.2 Application caches
      3. 6.7.3 The cache manifest syntax
        1. 6.7.3.1 Some sample manifests
        2. 6.7.3.2 Writing cache manifests
        3. 6.7.3.3 Parsing cache manifests
      4. 6.7.4 Downloading or updating an application cache
      5. 6.7.5 The application cache selection algorithm
      6. 6.7.6 Changes to the networking model
      7. 6.7.7 Expiring application caches
      8. 6.7.8 Disk space
      9. 6.7.9 Application cache API
      10. 6.7.10 Browser state
  7. 7 Web application APIs
    1. 7.1 Scripting
      1. 7.1.1 Introduction
      2. 7.1.2 Enabling and disabling scripting
      3. 7.1.3 Processing model
        1. 7.1.3.1 Definitions
        2. 7.1.3.2 Script settings for browsing contexts
        3. 7.1.3.3 Calling scripts
        4. 7.1.3.4 Creating scripts
        5. 7.1.3.5 Killing scripts
        6. 7.1.3.6 Runtime script errors
          1. 7.1.3.6.1 Runtime script errors in documents
          2. 7.1.3.6.2 The ErrorEvent interface
      4. 7.1.4 Event loops
        1. 7.1.4.1 Definitions
        2. 7.1.4.2 Processing model
        3. 7.1.4.3 Generic task sources
      5. 7.1.5 Events
        1. 7.1.5.1 Event handlers
        2. 7.1.5.2 Event handlers on elements, Document objects, and Window objects
          1. 7.1.5.2.1 IDL definitions
        3. 7.1.5.3 Event firing
        4. 7.1.5.4 Events and the Window object
    2. 7.2 Base64 utility methods
    3. 7.3 Dynamic markup insertion
      1. 7.3.1 Opening the input stream
      2. 7.3.2 Closing the input stream
      3. 7.3.3 document.write()
      4. 7.3.4 document.writeln()
    4. 7.4 Timers
    5. 7.5 User prompts
      1. 7.5.1 Simple dialogs
      2. 7.5.2 Printing
      3. 7.5.3 Dialogs implemented using separate documents
    6. 7.6 System state and capabilities
      1. 7.6.1 The Navigator object
        1. 7.6.1.1 Client identification
        2. 7.6.1.2 Language preferences
        3. 7.6.1.3 Custom scheme and content handlers
          1. 7.6.1.3.1 Security and privacy
          2. 7.6.1.3.2 Sample user interface
        4. 7.6.1.4 Manually releasing the storage mutex
        5. 7.6.1.5 Plugins
      2. 7.6.2 The External interface
    7. 7.7 Images
  8. 8 User interaction
    1. 8.1 The hidden attribute
    2. 8.2 Inert subtrees
    3. 8.3 Activation
    4. 8.4 Focus
      1. 8.4.1 Introduction
      2. 8.4.2 Data model
      3. 8.4.3 The tabindex attribute
      4. 8.4.4 Processing model
      5. 8.4.5 Sequential focus navigation
      6. 8.4.6 Focus management APIs
    5. 8.5 Assigning keyboard shortcuts
      1. 8.5.1 Introduction
      2. 8.5.2 The accesskey attribute
      3. 8.5.3 Processing model
    6. 8.6 Editing
      1. 8.6.1 Making document regions editable: The contenteditable content attribute
      2. 8.6.2 Making entire documents editable: The designMode IDL attribute
      3. 8.6.3 Best practices for in-page editors
      4. 8.6.4 Editing APIs
      5. 8.6.5 Spelling and grammar checking
    7. 8.7 Drag and drop
      1. 8.7.1 Introduction
      2. 8.7.2 The drag data store
      3. 8.7.3 The DataTransfer interface
        1. 8.7.3.1 The DataTransferItemList interface
        2. 8.7.3.2 The DataTransferItem interface
      4. 8.7.4 The DragEvent interface
      5. 8.7.5 Drag-and-drop processing model
      6. 8.7.6 Events summary
      7. 8.7.7 The draggable attribute
      8. 8.7.8 The dropzone attribute
      9. 8.7.9 Security risks in the drag-and-drop model
  9. 9 Communication
    1. 9.1 The MessageEvent interfaces
    2. 9.2 Server-sent events
      1. 9.2.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2.2 The EventSource interface
      3. 9.2.3 Processing model
      4. 9.2.4 Parsing an event stream
      5. 9.2.5 Interpreting an event stream
      6. 9.2.6 Authoring notes
      7. 9.2.7 Connectionless push and other features
      8. 9.2.8 Garbage collection
      9. 9.2.9 Implementation advice
      10. 9.2.10 IANA considerations
        1. 9.2.10.1 text/event-stream
        2. 9.2.10.2 Last-Event-ID
    3. 9.3 Web sockets
      1. 9.3.1 Introduction
      2. 9.3.2 The WebSocket interface
      3. 9.3.3 Feedback from the protocol
      4. 9.3.4 Ping and Pong frames
      5. 9.3.5 Parsing WebSocket URLs
      6. 9.3.6 The CloseEvent interfaces
      7. 9.3.7 Garbage collection
    4. 9.4 Cross-document messaging
      1. 9.4.1 Introduction
      2. 9.4.2 Security
        1. 9.4.2.1 Authors
        2. 9.4.2.2 User agents
      3. 9.4.3 Posting messages
    5. 9.5 Channel messaging
      1. 9.5.1 Introduction
        1. 9.5.1.1 Examples
        2. 9.5.1.2 Ports as the basis of an object-capability model on the Web
        3. 9.5.1.3 Ports as the basis of abstracting out service implementations
      2. 9.5.2 Message channels
      3. 9.5.3 Message ports
      4. 9.5.4 Broadcasting to many ports
      5. 9.5.5 Ports and garbage collection
    6. 9.6 Broadcasting to other browsing contexts
  10. 10 Web workers
    1. 10.1 Introduction
      1. 10.1.1 Scope
      2. 10.1.2 Examples
        1. 10.1.2.1 A background number-crunching worker
        2. 10.1.2.2 Worker used for background I/O
        3. 10.1.2.3 Shared workers introduction
        4. 10.1.2.4 Shared state using a shared worker
        5. 10.1.2.5 Delegation
      3. 10.1.3 Tutorials
        1. 10.1.3.1 Creating a dedicated worker
        2. 10.1.3.2 Communicating with a dedicated worker
        3. 10.1.3.3 Shared workers
    2. 10.2 Infrastructure
      1. 10.2.1 The global scope
        1. 10.2.1.1 The WorkerGlobalScope common interface
        2. 10.2.1.2 Dedicated workers and the DedicatedWorkerGlobalScope interface
        3. 10.2.1.3 Shared workers and the SharedWorkerGlobalScope interface
      2. 10.2.2 The event loop
      3. 10.2.3 The worker's lifetime
      4. 10.2.4 Processing model
      5. 10.2.5 Runtime script errors
      6. 10.2.6 Creating workers
        1. 10.2.6.1 The AbstractWorker abstract interface
        2. 10.2.6.2 Script settings for workers
        3. 10.2.6.3 Dedicated workers and the Worker interface
        4. 10.2.6.4 Shared workers and the SharedWorker interface
    3. 10.3 APIs available to workers
      1. 10.3.1 Importing scripts and libraries
      2. 10.3.2 The WorkerNavigator object
      3. 10.3.3 Worker locations
  11. 11 Web storage
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 The API
      1. 11.2.1 The Storage interface
      2. 11.2.2 The sessionStorage attribute
      3. 11.2.3 The localStorage attribute
      4. 11.2.4 The storage event
        1. 11.2.4.1 The StorageEvent interface
      5. 11.2.5 Threads
    3. 11.3 Disk space
    4. 11.4 Privacy
      1. 11.4.1 User tracking
      2. 11.4.2 Sensitivity of data
    5. 11.5 Security
      1. 11.5.1 DNS spoofing attacks
      2. 11.5.2 Cross-directory attacks
      3. 11.5.3 Implementation risks
  12. 12 The HTML syntax
    1. 12.1 Writing HTML documents
      1. 12.1.1 The DOCTYPE
      2. 12.1.2 Elements
        1. 12.1.2.1 Start tags
        2. 12.1.2.2 End tags
        3. 12.1.2.3 Attributes
        4. 12.1.2.4 Optional tags
        5. 12.1.2.5 Restrictions on content models
        6. 12.1.2.6 Restrictions on the contents of raw text and escapable raw text elements
      3. 12.1.3 Text
        1. 12.1.3.1 Newlines
      4. 12.1.4 Character references
      5. 12.1.5 CDATA sections
      6. 12.1.6 Comments
    2. 12.2 Parsing HTML documents
      1. 12.2.1 Overview of the parsing model
      2. 12.2.2 The input byte stream
        1. 12.2.2.1 Parsing with a known character encoding
        2. 12.2.2.2 Determining the character encoding
        3. 12.2.2.3 Character encodings
        4. 12.2.2.4 Changing the encoding while parsing
        5. 12.2.2.5 Preprocessing the input stream
      3. 12.2.3 Parse state
        1. 12.2.3.1 The insertion mode
        2. 12.2.3.2 The stack of open elements
        3. 12.2.3.3 The list of active formatting elements
        4. 12.2.3.4 The element pointers
        5. 12.2.3.5 Other parsing state flags
      4. 12.2.4 Tokenization
        1. 12.2.4.1 Data state
        2. 12.2.4.2 Character reference in data state
        3. 12.2.4.3 RCDATA state
        4. 12.2.4.4 Character reference in RCDATA state
        5. 12.2.4.5 RAWTEXT state
        6. 12.2.4.6 Script data state
        7. 12.2.4.7 PLAINTEXT state
        8. 12.2.4.8 Tag open state
        9. 12.2.4.9 End tag open state
        10. 12.2.4.10 Tag name state
        11. 12.2.4.11 RCDATA less-than sign state
        12. 12.2.4.12 RCDATA end tag open state
        13. 12.2.4.13 RCDATA end tag name state
        14. 12.2.4.14 RAWTEXT less-than sign state
        15. 12.2.4.15 RAWTEXT end tag open state
        16. 12.2.4.16 RAWTEXT end tag name state
        17. 12.2.4.17 Script data less-than sign state
        18. 12.2.4.18 Script data end tag open state
        19. 12.2.4.19 Script data end tag name state
        20. 12.2.4.20 Script data escape start state
        21. 12.2.4.21 Script data escape start dash state
        22. 12.2.4.22 Script data escaped state
        23. 12.2.4.23 Script data escaped dash state
        24. 12.2.4.24 Script data escaped dash dash state
        25. 12.2.4.25 Script data escaped less-than sign state
        26. 12.2.4.26 Script data escaped end tag open state
        27. 12.2.4.27 Script data escaped end tag name state
        28. 12.2.4.28 Script data double escape start state
        29. 12.2.4.29 Script data double escaped state
        30. 12.2.4.30 Script data double escaped dash state
        31. 12.2.4.31 Script data double escaped dash dash state
        32. 12.2.4.32 Script data double escaped less-than sign state
        33. 12.2.4.33 Script data double escape end state
        34. 12.2.4.34 Before attribute name state
        35. 12.2.4.35 Attribute name state
        36. 12.2.4.36 After attribute name state
        37. 12.2.4.37 Before attribute value state
        38. 12.2.4.38 Attribute value (double-quoted) state
        39. 12.2.4.39 Attribute value (single-quoted) state
        40. 12.2.4.40 Attribute value (unquoted) state
        41. 12.2.4.41 Character reference in attribute value state
        42. 12.2.4.42 After attribute value (quoted) state
        43. 12.2.4.43 Self-closing start tag state
        44. 12.2.4.44 Bogus comment state
        45. 12.2.4.45 Markup declaration open state
        46. 12.2.4.46 Comment start state
        47. 12.2.4.47 Comment start dash state
        48. 12.2.4.48 Comment state
        49. 12.2.4.49 Comment end dash state
        50. 12.2.4.50 Comment end state
        51. 12.2.4.51 Comment end bang state
        52. 12.2.4.52 DOCTYPE state
        53. 12.2.4.53 Before DOCTYPE name state
        54. 12.2.4.54 DOCTYPE name state
        55. 12.2.4.55 After DOCTYPE name state
        56. 12.2.4.56 After DOCTYPE public keyword state
        57. 12.2.4.57 Before DOCTYPE public identifier state
        58. 12.2.4.58 DOCTYPE public identifier (double-quoted) state
        59. 12.2.4.59 DOCTYPE public identifier (single-quoted) state
        60. 12.2.4.60 After DOCTYPE public identifier state
        61. 12.2.4.61 Between DOCTYPE public and system identifiers state
        62. 12.2.4.62 After DOCTYPE system keyword state
        63. 12.2.4.63 Before DOCTYPE system identifier state
        64. 12.2.4.64 DOCTYPE system identifier (double-quoted) state
        65. 12.2.4.65 DOCTYPE system identifier (single-quoted) state
        66. 12.2.4.66 After DOCTYPE system identifier state
        67. 12.2.4.67 Bogus DOCTYPE state
        68. 12.2.4.68 CDATA section state
        69. 12.2.4.69 Tokenizing character references
      5. 12.2.5 Tree construction
        1. 12.2.5.1 Creating and inserting nodes
        2. 12.2.5.2 Parsing elements that contain only text
        3. 12.2.5.3 Closing elements that have implied end tags
        4. 12.2.5.4 The rules for parsing tokens in HTML content
          1. 12.2.5.4.1 The "initial" insertion mode
          2. 12.2.5.4.2 The "before html" insertion mode
          3. 12.2.5.4.3 The "before head" insertion mode
          4. 12.2.5.4.4 The "in head" insertion mode
          5. 12.2.5.4.5 The "in head noscript" insertion mode
          6. 12.2.5.4.6 The "after head" insertion mode
          7. 12.2.5.4.7 The "in body" insertion mode
          8. 12.2.5.4.8 The "text" insertion mode
          9. 12.2.5.4.9 The "in table" insertion mode
          10. 12.2.5.4.10 The "in table text" insertion mode
          11. 12.2.5.4.11 The "in caption" insertion mode
          12. 12.2.5.4.12 The "in column group" insertion mode
          13. 12.2.5.4.13 The "in table body" insertion mode
          14. 12.2.5.4.14 The "in row" insertion mode
          15. 12.2.5.4.15 The "in cell" insertion mode
          16. 12.2.5.4.16 The "in select" insertion mode
          17. 12.2.5.4.17 The "in select in table" insertion mode
          18. 12.2.5.4.18 The "in template" insertion mode
          19. 12.2.5.4.19 The "after body" insertion mode
          20. 12.2.5.4.20 The "in frameset" insertion mode
          21. 12.2.5.4.21 The "after frameset" insertion mode
          22. 12.2.5.4.22 The "after after body" insertion mode
          23. 12.2.5.4.23 The "after after frameset" insertion mode
        5. 12.2.5.5 The rules for parsing tokens in foreign content
      6. 12.2.6 The end
      7. 12.2.7 Coercing an HTML DOM into an infoset
      8. 12.2.8 An introduction to error handling and strange cases in the parser
        1. 12.2.8.1 Misnested tags: <b><i></b></i>
        2. 12.2.8.2 Misnested tags: <b><p></b></p>
        3. 12.2.8.3 Unexpected markup in tables
        4. 12.2.8.4 Scripts that modify the page as it is being parsed
        5. 12.2.8.5 The execution of scripts that are moving across multiple documents
        6. 12.2.8.6 Unclosed formatting elements
    3. 12.3 Serializing HTML fragments
    4. 12.4 Parsing HTML fragments
    5. 12.5 Named character references
  13. 13 The XHTML syntax
    1. 13.1 Writing XHTML documents
    2. 13.2 Parsing XHTML documents
    3. 13.3 Serializing XHTML fragments
    4. 13.4 Parsing XHTML fragments
  14. 14 Rendering
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 The CSS user agent style sheet and presentational hints
    3. 14.3 Non-replaced elements
      1. 14.3.1 Hidden elements
      2. 14.3.2 The page
      3. 14.3.3 Flow content
      4. 14.3.4 Phrasing content
      5. 14.3.5 Bidirectional text
      6. 14.3.6 Quotes
      7. 14.3.7 Sections and headings
      8. 14.3.8 Lists
      9. 14.3.9 Tables
      10. 14.3.10 Margin collapsing quirks
      11. 14.3.11 Form controls
      12. 14.3.12 The hr element
      13. 14.3.13 The fieldset and legend elements
    4. 14.4 Replaced elements
      1. 14.4.1 Embedded content
      2. 14.4.2 Images
      3. 14.4.3 Attributes for embedded content and images
      4. 14.4.4 Image maps
    5. 14.5 Bindings
      1. 14.5.1 Introduction
      2. 14.5.2 The button element
      3. 14.5.3 The details element
      4. 14.5.4 The input element as a text entry widget
      5. 14.5.5 The input element as domain-specific widgets
      6. 14.5.6 The input element as a range control
      7. 14.5.7 The input element as a color well
      8. 14.5.8 The input element as a checkbox and radio button widgets
      9. 14.5.9 The input element as a file upload control
      10. 14.5.10 The input element as a button
      11. 14.5.11 The marquee element
      12. 14.5.12 The meter element
      13. 14.5.13 The progress element
      14. 14.5.14 The select element
      15. 14.5.15 The textarea element
      16. 14.5.16 The keygen element
    6. 14.6 Frames and framesets
    7. 14.7 Interactive media
      1. 14.7.1 Links, forms, and navigation
      2. 14.7.2 The title attribute
      3. 14.7.3 Editing hosts
      4. 14.7.4 Text rendered in native user interfaces
    8. 14.8 Print media
    9. 14.9 Unstyled XML documents
  15. 15 Obsolete features
    1. 15.1 Obsolete but conforming features
      1. 15.1.1 Warnings for obsolete but conforming features
    2. 15.2 Non-conforming features
    3. 15.3 Requirements for implementations
      1. 15.3.1 The applet element
      2. 15.3.2 The marquee element
      3. 15.3.3 Frames
      4. 15.3.4 Other elements, attributes and APIs
  16. 16 IANA considerations
    1. 16.1 text/html
    2. 16.2 multipart/x-mixed-replace
    3. 16.3 application/xhtml+xml
    4. 16.4 application/x-www-form-urlencoded
    5. 16.5 text/cache-manifest
    6. 16.6 text/ping
    7. 16.7 application/microdata+json
    8. 16.8 Ping-From
    9. 16.9 Ping-To
    10. 16.10 web+ scheme prefix
  17. Index
    1. Elements
    2. Element content categories
    3. Attributes
    4. Element Interfaces
    5. All Interfaces
    6. Events
  18. References
  19. Acknowledgments