This is a snapshot of an early working draft and has therefore been superseded by the HTML standard.

This document will not be further updated.

HTML 5

Call For Comments — 27 October 2007

8.2.3. Tokenisation

Implementations must act as if they used the following state machine to tokenise HTML. The state machine must start in the data state. Most states consume a single character, which may have various side-effects, and either switches the state machine to a new state to reconsume the same character, or switches it to a new state (to consume the next character), or repeats the same state (to consume the next character). Some states have more complicated behaviour and can consume several characters before switching to another state.

The exact behaviour of certain states depends on a content model flag that is set after certain tokens are emitted. The flag has several states: PCDATA, RCDATA, CDATA, and PLAINTEXT. Initially it must be in the PCDATA state. In the RCDATA and CDATA states, a further escape flag is used to control the behaviour of the tokeniser. It is either true or false, and initially must be set to the false state.

The output of the tokenisation step is a series of zero or more of the following tokens: DOCTYPE, start tag, end tag, comment, character, end-of-file. DOCTYPE tokens have a name, a public identifier, a system identifier, and a correctness flag. When a DOCTYPE token is created, its name, public identifier, and system identifier must be marked as missing, and the correctness flag must be set to correct (its other state is incorrect). Start and end tag tokens have a tag name and a list of attributes, each of which has a name and a value. Comment and character tokens have data.

When a token is emitted, it must immediately be handled by the tree construction stage. The tree construction stage can affect the state of the content model flag, and can insert additional characters into the stream. (For example, the script element can result in scripts executing and using the dynamic markup insertion APIs to insert characters into the stream being tokenised.)

When an end tag token is emitted, the content model flag must be switched to the PCDATA state.

When an end tag token is emitted with attributes, that is a parse error.

A permitted slash is a U+002F SOLIDUS character that is immediately followed by a U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN, if, and only if, the current token being processed is a start tag token whose tag name is one of the following: base, link, meta, hr, br, img, embed, param, area, col, input

Before each step of the tokeniser, the user agent may check to see if either one of the scripts in the list of scripts that will execute as soon as possible or the first script in the list of scripts that will execute asynchronously, has completed loading. If one has, then it must be executed and removed from its list.

The tokeniser state machine is as follows:

Data state

Consume the next input character:

U+0026 AMPERSAND (&)
When the content model flag is set to one of the PCDATA or RCDATA states: switch to the entity data state.
Otherwise: treat it as per the "anything else" entry below.
U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-)

If the content model flag is set to either the RCDATA state or the CDATA state, and the escape flag is false, and there are at least three characters before this one in the input stream, and the last four characters in the input stream, including this one, are U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN, U+0021 EXCLAMATION MARK, U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS, and U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("<!--"), then set the escape flag to true.

In any case, emit the input character as a character token. Stay in the data state.

U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN (<)
When the content model flag is set to the PCDATA state: switch to the tag open state.
When the content model flag is set to either the RCDATA state or the CDATA state and the escape flag is false: switch to the tag open state.
Otherwise: treat it as per the "anything else" entry below.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)

If the content model flag is set to either the RCDATA state or the CDATA state, and the escape flag is true, and the last three characters in the input stream including this one are U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS, U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS, U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN ("-->"), set the escape flag to false.

In any case, emit the input character as a character token. Stay in the data state.

EOF
Emit an end-of-file token.
Anything else
Emit the input character as a character token. Stay in the data state.
Entity data state

(This cannot happen if the content model flag is set to the CDATA state.)

Attempt to consume an entity.

If nothing is returned, emit a U+0026 AMPERSAND character token.

Otherwise, emit the character token that was returned.

Finally, switch to the data state.

Tag open state

The behaviour of this state depends on the content model flag.

If the content model flag is set to the RCDATA or CDATA states

Consume the next input character. If it is a U+002F SOLIDUS (/) character, switch to the close tag open state. Otherwise, emit a U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN character token and reconsume the current input character in the data state.

If the content model flag is set to the PCDATA state

Consume the next input character:

U+0021 EXCLAMATION MARK (!)
Switch to the markup declaration open state.
U+002F SOLIDUS (/)
Switch to the close tag open state.
U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A through to U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z
Create a new start tag token, set its tag name to the lowercase version of the input character (add 0x0020 to the character's code point), then switch to the tag name state. (Don't emit the token yet; further details will be filled in before it is emitted.)
U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A through to U+007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z
Create a new start tag token, set its tag name to the input character, then switch to the tag name state. (Don't emit the token yet; further details will be filled in before it is emitted.)
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Parse error. Emit a U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN character token and a U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN character token. Switch to the data state.
U+003F QUESTION MARK (?)
Parse error. Switch to the bogus comment state.
Anything else
Parse error. Emit a U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN character token and reconsume the current input character in the data state.
Close tag open state

If the content model flag is set to the RCDATA or CDATA states but no start tag token has ever been emitted by this instance of the tokeniser (fragment case), or, if the content model flag is set to the RCDATA or CDATA states and the next few characters do not match the tag name of the last start tag token emitted (case insensitively), or if they do but they are not immediately followed by one of the following characters:

...then emit a U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN character token, a U+002F SOLIDUS character token, and switch to the data state to process the next input character.

Otherwise, if the content model flag is set to the PCDATA state, or if the next few characters do match that tag name, consume the next input character:

U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A through to U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z
Create a new end tag token, set its tag name to the lowercase version of the input character (add 0x0020 to the character's code point), then switch to the tag name state. (Don't emit the token yet; further details will be filled in before it is emitted.)
U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A through to U+007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z
Create a new end tag token, set its tag name to the input character, then switch to the tag name state. (Don't emit the token yet; further details will be filled in before it is emitted.)
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Parse error. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit a U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN character token and a U+002F SOLIDUS character token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Parse error. Switch to the bogus comment state.
Tag name state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Switch to the before attribute name state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current tag token. Switch to the data state.
U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A through to U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z
Append the lowercase version of the current input character (add 0x0020 to the character's code point) to the current tag token's tag name. Stay in the tag name state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the current tag token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
U+002F SOLIDUS (/)
Parse error unless this is a permitted slash. Switch to the before attribute name state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current tag token's tag name. Stay in the tag name state.
Before attribute name state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Stay in the before attribute name state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current tag token. Switch to the data state.
U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A through to U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z
Start a new attribute in the current tag token. Set that attribute's name to the lowercase version of the current input character (add 0x0020 to the character's code point), and its value to the empty string. Switch to the attribute name state.
U+002F SOLIDUS (/)
Parse error unless this is a permitted slash. Stay in the before attribute name state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the current tag token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Start a new attribute in the current tag token. Set that attribute's name to the current input character, and its value to the empty string. Switch to the attribute name state.
Attribute name state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Switch to the after attribute name state.
U+003D EQUALS SIGN (=)
Switch to the before attribute value state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current tag token. Switch to the data state.
U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A through to U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z
Append the lowercase version of the current input character (add 0x0020 to the character's code point) to the current attribute's name. Stay in the attribute name state.
U+002F SOLIDUS (/)
Parse error unless this is a permitted slash. Switch to the before attribute name state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the current tag token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current attribute's name. Stay in the attribute name state.

When the user agent leaves the attribute name state (and before emitting the tag token, if appropriate), the complete attribute's name must be compared to the other attributes on the same token; if there is already an attribute on the token with the exact same name, then this is a parse error and the new attribute must be dropped, along with the value that gets associated with it (if any).

After attribute name state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Stay in the after attribute name state.
U+003D EQUALS SIGN (=)
Switch to the before attribute value state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current tag token. Switch to the data state.
U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A through to U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z
Start a new attribute in the current tag token. Set that attribute's name to the lowercase version of the current input character (add 0x0020 to the character's code point), and its value to the empty string. Switch to the attribute name state.
U+002F SOLIDUS (/)
Parse error unless this is a permitted slash. Switch to the before attribute name state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the current tag token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Start a new attribute in the current tag token. Set that attribute's name to the current input character, and its value to the empty string. Switch to the attribute name state.
Before attribute value state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Stay in the before attribute value state.
U+0022 QUOTATION MARK (")
Switch to the attribute value (double-quoted) state.
U+0026 AMPERSAND (&)
Switch to the attribute value (unquoted) state and reconsume this input character.
U+0027 APOSTROPHE (')
Switch to the attribute value (single-quoted) state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current tag token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the current tag token. Reconsume the character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current attribute's value. Switch to the attribute value (unquoted) state.
Attribute value (double-quoted) state

Consume the next input character:

U+0022 QUOTATION MARK (")
Switch to the before attribute name state.
U+0026 AMPERSAND (&)
Switch to the entity in attribute value state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the current tag token. Reconsume the character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current attribute's value. Stay in the attribute value (double-quoted) state.
Attribute value (single-quoted) state

Consume the next input character:

U+0027 APOSTROPHE (')
Switch to the before attribute name state.
U+0026 AMPERSAND (&)
Switch to the entity in attribute value state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the current tag token. Reconsume the character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current attribute's value. Stay in the attribute value (single-quoted) state.
Attribute value (unquoted) state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Switch to the before attribute name state.
U+0026 AMPERSAND (&)
Switch to the entity in attribute value state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current tag token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the current tag token. Reconsume the character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current attribute's value. Stay in the attribute value (unquoted) state.
Entity in attribute value state

Attempt to consume an entity.

If nothing is returned, append a U+0026 AMPERSAND character to the current attribute's value.

Otherwise, append the returned character token to the current attribute's value.

Finally, switch back to the attribute value state that you were in when were switched into this state.

Bogus comment state

(This can only happen if the content model flag is set to the PCDATA state.)

Consume every character up to the first U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN character (>) or the end of the file (EOF), whichever comes first. Emit a comment token whose data is the concatenation of all the characters starting from and including the character that caused the state machine to switch into the bogus comment state, up to and including the last consumed character before the U+003E character, if any, or up to the end of the file otherwise. (If the comment was started by the end of the file (EOF), the token is empty.)

Switch to the data state.

If the end of the file was reached, reconsume the EOF character.

Markup declaration open state

(This can only happen if the content model flag is set to the PCDATA state.)

If the next two characters are both U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-) characters, consume those two characters, create a comment token whose data is the empty string, and switch to the comment start state.

Otherwise if the next seven characters are a case-insensitive match for the word "DOCTYPE", then consume those characters and switch to the DOCTYPE state.

Otherwise, is is a parse error. Switch to the bogus comment state. The next character that is consumed, if any, is the first character that will be in the comment.

Comment start state

Consume the next input character:

U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-)
Switch to the comment start dash state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Parse error. Emit the comment token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the comment token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the input character to the comment token's data. Switch to the comment state.
Comment start dash state

Consume the next input character:

U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-)
Switch to the comment end state
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Parse error. Emit the comment token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the comment token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-) character and the input character to the comment token's data. Switch to the comment state.
Comment state

Consume the next input character:

U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-)
Switch to the comment end dash state
EOF
Parse error. Emit the comment token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the input character to the comment token's data. Stay in the comment state.
Comment end dash state

Consume the next input character:

U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-)
Switch to the comment end state
EOF
Parse error. Emit the comment token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-) character and the input character to the comment token's data. Switch to the comment state.
Comment end state

Consume the next input character:

U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the comment token. Switch to the data state.
U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-)
Parse error. Append a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-) character to the comment token's data. Stay in the comment end state.
EOF
Parse error. Emit the comment token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Parse error. Append two U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS (-) characters and the input character to the comment token's data. Switch to the comment state.
DOCTYPE state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Switch to the before DOCTYPE name state.
Anything else
Parse error. Reconsume the current character in the before DOCTYPE name state.
Before DOCTYPE name state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Stay in the before DOCTYPE name state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Parse error. Create a new DOCTYPE token. Set its correctness flag to incorrect. Emit the token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Create a new DOCTYPE token. Set its correctness flag to incorrect. Emit the token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Create a new DOCTYPE token. Set the token's name name to the current input character. Switch to the DOCTYPE name state.
DOCTYPE name state

First, consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Switch to the after DOCTYPE name state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current DOCTYPE token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current DOCTYPE token's name. Stay in the DOCTYPE name state.
After DOCTYPE name state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Stay in the after DOCTYPE name state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current DOCTYPE token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else

If the next six characters are a case-insensitive match for the word "PUBLIC", then consume those characters and switch to the before DOCTYPE public identifier state.

Otherwise, if the next six characters are a case-insensitive match for the word "SYSTEM", then consume those characters and switch to the before DOCTYPE system identifier state.

Otherwise, this is the parse error. Switch to the bogus DOCTYPE state.

Before DOCTYPE public identifier state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Stay in the before DOCTYPE public identifier state.
U+0022 QUOTATION MARK (")
Set the DOCTYPE token's public identifier to the empty string, then switch to the DOCTYPE public identifier (double-quoted) state.
U+0027 APOSTROPHE (')
Set the DOCTYPE token's public identifier to the empty string, then switch to the DOCTYPE public identifier (single-quoted) state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Parse error. Switch to the bogus DOCTYPE state.
DOCTYPE public identifier (double-quoted) state

Consume the next input character:

U+0022 QUOTATION MARK (")
Switch to the after DOCTYPE public identifier state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current DOCTYPE token's public identifier. Stay in the DOCTYPE public identifier (double-quoted) state.
DOCTYPE public identifier (single-quoted) state

Consume the next input character:

U+0027 APOSTROPHE (')
Switch to the after DOCTYPE public identifier state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current DOCTYPE token's public identifier. Stay in the DOCTYPE public identifier (single-quoted) state.
After DOCTYPE public identifier state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Stay in the after DOCTYPE public identifier state.
U+0022 QUOTATION MARK (")
Set the DOCTYPE token's system identifier to the empty string, then switch to the DOCTYPE system identifier (double-quoted) state.
U+0027 APOSTROPHE (')
Set the DOCTYPE token's system identifier to the empty string, then switch to the DOCTYPE system identifier (single-quoted) state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current DOCTYPE token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Parse error. Switch to the bogus DOCTYPE state.
Before DOCTYPE system identifier state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Stay in the before DOCTYPE system identifier state.
U+0022 QUOTATION MARK (")
Set the DOCTYPE token's system identifier to the empty string, then switch to the DOCTYPE system identifier (double-quoted) state.
U+0027 APOSTROPHE (')
Set the DOCTYPE token's system identifier to the empty string, then switch to the DOCTYPE system identifier (single-quoted) state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Parse error. Switch to the bogus DOCTYPE state.
DOCTYPE system identifier (double-quoted) state

Consume the next input character:

U+0022 QUOTATION MARK (")
Switch to the after DOCTYPE system identifier state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current DOCTYPE token's system identifier. Stay in the DOCTYPE system identifier (double-quoted) state.
DOCTYPE system identifier (single-quoted) state

Consume the next input character:

U+0027 APOSTROPHE (')
Switch to the after DOCTYPE system identifier state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Append the current input character to the current DOCTYPE token's system identifier. Stay in the DOCTYPE system identifier (single-quoted) state.
After DOCTYPE system identifier state

Consume the next input character:

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
Stay in the after DOCTYPE system identifier state.
U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Emit the current DOCTYPE token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Parse error. Switch to the bogus DOCTYPE state.
Bogus DOCTYPE state

Consume the next input character:

U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN (>)
Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Switch to the data state.
EOF
Parse error. Set the DOCTYPE token's correctness flag to incorrect. Emit that DOCTYPE token. Reconsume the EOF character in the data state.
Anything else
Stay in the bogus DOCTYPE state.
8.2.3.1. Tokenising entities

This section defines how to consume an entity. This definition is used when parsing entities in text and in attributes.

The behaviour depends on the identity of the next character (the one immediately after the U+0026 AMPERSAND character):

U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION
U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
U+000B LINE TABULATION
U+000C FORM FEED (FF)
U+0020 SPACE
U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN
U+0026 AMPERSAND
EOF
Not an entity. No characters are consumed, and nothing is returned. (This is not an error, either.)
U+0023 NUMBER SIGN (#)

Consume the U+0023 NUMBER SIGN.

The behaviour further depends on the character after the U+0023 NUMBER SIGN:

U+0078 LATIN SMALL LETTER X
U+0058 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X

Consume the X.

Follow the steps below, but using the range of characters U+0030 DIGIT ZERO through to U+0039 DIGIT NINE, U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A through to U+0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F, and U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A, through to U+0046 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F (in other words, 0-9, A-F, a-f).

When it comes to interpreting the number, interpret it as a hexadecimal number.

Anything else

Follow the steps below, but using the range of characters U+0030 DIGIT ZERO through to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (i.e. just 0-9).

When it comes to interpreting the number, interpret it as a decimal number.

Consume as many characters as match the range of characters given above.

If no characters match the range, then don't consume any characters (and unconsume the U+0023 NUMBER SIGN character and, if appropriate, the X character). This is a parse error; nothing is returned.

Otherwise, if the next character is a U+003B SEMICOLON, consume that too. If it isn't, there is a parse error.

If one or more characters match the range, then take them all and interpret the string of characters as a number (either hexadecimal or decimal as appropriate).

If that number is one of the numbers in the first column of the following table, then this is a parse error. Find the row with that number in the first column, and return a character token for the Unicode character given in the second column of that row.

Number Unicode character
0x0D U+000A LINE FEED (LF)
0x80 U+20AC EURO SIGN ('€')
0x81 U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER
0x82 U+201A SINGLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK ('‚')
0x83 U+0192 LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH HOOK ('ƒ')
0x84 U+201E DOUBLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK ('„')
0x85 U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS ('…')
0x86 U+2020 DAGGER ('†')
0x87 U+2021 DOUBLE DAGGER ('‡')
0x88 U+02C6 MODIFIER LETTER CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT ('ˆ')
0x89 U+2030 PER MILLE SIGN ('‰')
0x8A U+0160 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON ('Š')
0x8B U+2039 SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK ('‹')
0x8C U+0152 LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE ('Œ')
0x8D U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER
0x8E U+017D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH CARON ('Ž')
0x8F U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER
0x90 U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER
0x91 U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK ('‘')
0x92 U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK ('’')
0x93 U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK ('“')
0x94 U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK ('”')
0x95 U+2022 BULLET ('•')
0x96 U+2013 EN DASH ('–')
0x97 U+2014 EM DASH ('—')
0x98 U+02DC SMALL TILDE ('˜')
0x99 U+2122 TRADE MARK SIGN ('™')
0x9A U+0161 LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON ('š')
0x9B U+203A SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK ('›')
0x9C U+0153 LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE ('œ')
0x9D U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER
0x9E U+017E LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON ('ž')
0x9F U+0178 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS ('Ÿ')

Otherwise, if the number is zero, if the number is higher than 0x10FFFF, or if it's one of the surrogate characters (characters in the range 0xD800 to 0xDFFF), then this is a parse error; return a character token for the U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER character instead.

Otherwise, return a character token for the Unicode character whose code point is that number.

Anything else

Consume the maximum number of characters possible, with the consumed characters case-sensitively matching one of the identifiers in the first column of the entities table.

If no match can be made, then this is a parse error. No characters are consumed, and nothing is returned.

If the last character matched is not a U+003B SEMICOLON (;), there is a parse error.

If the entity is being consumed as part of an attribute, and the last character matched is not a U+003B SEMICOLON (;), and the next character is in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO to U+0039 DIGIT NINE, U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A to U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z, or U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A to U+007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z, then, for historical reasons, all the characters that were matched after the U+0026 AMPERSAND (&) must be unconsumed, and nothing is returned.

Otherwise, return a character token for the character corresponding to the entity name (as given by the second column of the entities table).

If the markup contains I'm &notit; I tell you, the entity is parsed as "not", as in, I'm ¬it; I tell you. But if the markup was I'm &notin; I tell you, the entity would be parsed as "notin;", resulting in I'm ∉ I tell you.